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Project Management (Case 4)


1. What phase of the project do you think causes it to fail?

In project management there are 5 basic phases that a project should undergo before it would complete its stages.

5 Basic Phases of Project Management

Project Management Institute, Inc. (PMI) defines project management as “the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements of a particular project.” The process of directing and controlling a project from start to finish may be further divided into 5 basic phases:

  1. Project conception and initiation

An idea for a project will be carefully examined to determine whether or not it benefits the organization. During this phase, a decision making team will identify if the project can realistically be completed.

  1. Project definition and planning

A project plan, project charter and/or project scope may be put in writing, outlining the work to be performed. During this phase, a team should prioritize the project, calculate a budget and schedule, and determine what resources are needed.

  1. Project launch or execution

Resources’ tasks are distributed and teams are informed of responsibilities. This is a good time to bring up important project related information.

  1. Project performance and control

Project managers will compare project status and progress to the actual plan, as resources perform the scheduled work. During this phase, project managers may need to adjust schedules or do what is necessary to keep the project on track.

  1. Project close

After project tasks are completed and the client has approved the outcome, an evaluation is necessary to highlight project success and/or learn from project history.

Projects and project management processes vary from industry to industry; however, these are more traditional elements of a project. The overarching goal is typically to offer a product, change a process or to solve a problem in order to benefit the organization.

These phases or steps are needed as a guide for the project team to accomplish the project that was assigned to them. If they will not be able to accomplish one phase, they can’t proceed to the next phase in which they have so start over and over again without any traces of accomplishments.

From the above scenario, the root problem on why the project resulted into failure is that the EMCA Corporation is a computer shop specialization in selling IT solutions for home users and Small & Medium Enterprises. Even though they sell softwares, this company doesn’t have a software development team for their customers. They bid for the project offered by the LGU that is to implement a biometric DTR or Daily Time Record and Payroll Solution that is aiming to eliminate ghost employees of the LGU or Local Government Unit. The said project was very useful and helpful for the improvement of their system, its just that they barked at the wrong tree which is the EMCA Corporation. The said company is good in providing hardwares and softwares but not to the point that they will engage in software development because it is not their forte. It all started when the head of local outlet of the EMCA interfered and wanted to provide the complete solution for the project in which the local outlet hesitated about it because they know software development is beyond the scope of their company.

In the first phase of project management which is Project Conception and Initiation, they may surpass this stage because they were able to think of ways on how to start the project and provided alternative ways to accomplish it like hiring sub contractual employees like a group of IT people from different companies which in composed of a System Analyst and three other developer/programmer.

In the second phase which is Project definition and Planning, they lack synchronization because the office hours of the EMCA are from Monday-Friday and half day during Saturdays. Knowing that their sub contractual employees can only work in them during Saturdays they will not be able to meet for a specific time in performing their tasks. This phase is very crucial because it is the planning stage and every member of the team is needed for their suggestions and presence are needed especially when they will be dividing the tasks so that the work will be done faster.

In the third phase which is Project Launch or Execution, this will be the part in which they will distribute to the members their respective responsibilities in the project so that they will be able to start as well as finish their given task. All members of the team should work hand in hand or collaborate as a team because teamwork is all they need for them to be able to succeed.

In the fourth phase which is Project Performance and control, in this phase or part of the project management the project manager should take charge of the overall control of the project. His presence is very much needed in this phase. Because as a project manager, he should be a hands-on leader to their group because if the project will end to a failure the blame will be all unto him because of his negligence and by not being an effective leader to the team.

The last phase would be project close; this is the end part of the project after they have accomplished everything. The team will present their finish product of project to their clients and will be having some evaluation from their clients so that they will know if they are satisfied with their works and for them to work on some changes if their clients will demand some.

In this case there are lots of negligence that happened within the team and it is also the reason why the project resulted to a failure especially the project manager. A project manager should have the ethics towards his work. During the course of a project, the project manager may be faced with many decisions in which he must choose the right course of action. A project manager’s ethics should provide a strong guide for these decisions. For example, a project manager must not exploit resources or confidential information for personal gain. Ethics should also assist the project manager with interpersonal communication. By remaining honest and respectful of co-workers and clients, the project manager will be able to promote a positive work atmosphere. A project manager should possess the fundamental qualities like responsibility, respect, fairness and honesty. Responsibility is very vital to project management because everything relies on the project manager from the project itself and also to his co-workers. This third value calls for a project manager to own his decisions and not attempt to place blame on others for failures. Responsibility can also tie in closely with fairness when accepting accolades. If a project manager shares the success of a project with his team, this not only will help to build a reputation for him as a good team leader, but also it will help to build team morale.

The project manager in this case is not responsible enough to handle the project and as well as him team. It is not a good attitude to be absent during the most important meetings for their project. he is not around during the installation of the software to the LGU site only the developers were present during that day. He made it even worst when the EMCA project manager resigned and went abroad. He left and all his responsibilities were left hanging. The EMCA outlet manager did take over his position and they have found out that the software has bugs and the subcontracted group corrected it.

The project was left hanging even more because the members of the team except the system analyst left the project and not heard anything from them. From that move, we can conclude that the project will not go any far because one by one the persons assigned to it who did take all the responsibilities from the start are now gone without even considering the effect of their actions. The system analyst was left with project all alone for the JOB, debugging and testing it. We could not expect for an improvement in this project because first, it is a big project and it should be done as a group and not individually and lastly, too much time have been wasted because of the attitudes that the team members have shown towards the project.

I can say that the EMCA Corporation should also have the blame on the failure of the LGU project because they know that software development is not their thing. They do not have much experienced in handling projects like this. They should not present their company to the LGU because of its less experience in handling software development projects. The company’s reputation is also at risk on this move because it is not their forte and they went out of their comfort zone. Unfortunately, the project is declared as a failure and their reputation is already stained because of their negligence and the failure of the assigned project to them.

The project manager should also considered and take the full responsibility because he is the leader of the team. Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience (Jago, 1982). This guide will help a person through that process.

To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and, do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are NOT resting on their laurels. While leadership is learned, the skills and knowledge processed by the leader can be influenced by his or hers attributes or traits, such as beliefsvaluesethics, and character. Knowledge and skills contribute directly to the process of leadership, while the other attributes give the leader certain characteristics that make him or her unique.

A leader must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do. Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader or someone else who determines if the leader is successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed.

Different people require different styles of leadership. For example, a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. You must come to know your employees’ be, know, and do attributes.

In their case, their leader or the project manager lacks motivation in accomplishing the project then it will also be the mindset of the members that their leader is not worthy of their hard work and trust then they will also be uninspired to work on their project because of their leader’s attitude.

Leaders lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. For instance, when you “set the example,” that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees.

In their case, they are not able to communicate well because their schedules are not fixed and they barely see each other especially their project manager who is always absent and not able to perform his work properly.

What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction. To gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future.

Without the proper function of a leader, the team will not succeed as well as the project that they are doing because when there is no proper leadership towards a team everything will fall like a domino.

2. As a project manager how would you proceed with the recommendation of the LGU?

A  As a project manager, I would recommend the LGU choose the best company to work on their projects and not just entrust to a company with less experience in this kind of task. Because a project is not just a joke that we can laugh if it will fail for it is a serious matter.

If the LGU will approve, I would still want to proceed with the project but I will form another team and set another members whom I can fully trust to work and finish the project in due time. A project manager plays a big role in the project and he needs knowledge so that the project will not result into a failure.

There are some factors that would help project managers in handling a project so that everything will fall into its proper place and there are no other results but SUCCESS!

  1. “Project definition” – Define project scope in 1-3 sentences and include it in every project meeting to avoid scope creep.”

The scope statement helps stakeholders develop a common understanding of the project and specifies what should be the goals and objectives of the project and what needs to be accomplished for the project. Scope creep refers to uncontrolled changes in a project’s scope. This occurs when the scope of a project is not controlled, documented or defined properly.

Defining project scope and avoiding scope creep are important because doing so keeps the stakeholders in the know and the project on budget and schedule. “There will be people who try to change things or add things to the project without allow for time line changes. Watch out for these people,” Gerald Nichols, another project management guru within our company, said. Maintaining a balance of both aspects is a difficult task, but they are crucial to not losing control of the project. A clear plan leads to flawless execution. If everything is plotted out perfectly, and the members of the team keep referring to that plan, odds are the project is going to be a success.

Gerald Nichols weighed in on the topic, saying “Understand exactly what the project encompasses. That way there are no surprises later.”

  1. “Key Resources” – Assign a resource from each department involved in the project. This resource is responsible for attending meetings and keeping their team posted on progress.”

Selecting a representative from each department allows for the remaining members to continue their work while the representative is doing the JOB of filling everyone else in. Uprooting all of the people that are working on the project can be a painstaking endeavor. Streamlined meetings with just the representatives are more conducive to a productive discourse.

  1. “Milestones” – Define priorities and set dates for tasks to be accomplished to keep project on track.”

Everything in life has to be prioritized, especially when it comes to project management. You want everyone working on the project to work on the most important thing first and work down the list until it’s completed. Also, deadlines provide the workers with a goal for when the task should be finished. Deadlines must be honored for the project to stay on target.

  1. “Time Management” – If tasks are not completed on their required dates, adjust the calendar or priorities appropriately, so other departments are not adversely affected.”

As much as we would like to meet every deadline, disasters can happen that take our eyes off the prize. A worker can try their hardest to get something done on time, but every so often it isn’t meant to be. “Don’t try and estimate a project until it has been broken down to tasks. You will/can forget about smaller tasks that when added together will push your time frame out,” Nichols said.

This isn’t their fault though, so everything can be adjusted accordingly. However, in the case of employees who don’t get their work done for reasons of their own design, the team needs to be adjusted more than the calendar.

“When it comes to projects it is the same as the old line “How do you eat an elephant?” – One bite at a time. Take the project and break it down to tasks, if a task can be broken down to more tasks, do it. You should end up with a list of tasks that you can put time to and milestones,” Nichols said.

  1. “Manage Expectations” – Constant communication with the key resources and project stakeholders on progress. If priorities or end dates change, all stakeholders should know.”

Communication is important in any relationship, especially ones between the project manager and their team and the company and their stakeholders. Constant, productive communication needs to occur for the project to be completed on time and without too many disgruntled employees coming away from it. The stockholders need to stay informed because they want to be involved in the company’s operations. Alienating them could result in the financial collapse of the company as a whole.

“Keep everyone on the team in the loop, even if they are not directly involved with that piece. You might think that development is not involved in a sales decision, however they might be greatly impacted by the decision or have a better idea you have not thought of,” Nichols said.

Using the five recommendations above and online project management services could help you complete any project with stunning results. Keep in mind the other guidelines for your respective industries. Those rules and what we’ve provided will lead you on a surefire path towards success.

Since the EMCA Corporation is new to this kind of project, as a project manager I would recommend my team to do thorough research on the development of the software that the client wanted. Even though the team is consists of IT Professionals like programmers and developers from different countries, research is still an effective tool in doing projects for them to gather information that are might useful for their project.

Successful projects and campaigns result from quality stakeholder engagement, research, insight, careful planning, implementation, and constant adjustments based on feedback. Approach all projects from a project lifecycle perspective, with most projects following a series of interdependent stages. Typically, these stages include understanding, planning, and designing, implementing, and concluding.

There is a time and place for each product and service. Within each stage, projects may require any combination of management, research, creativity, training, and technical services. To approach each project, we should assess which project lifecycle stages will be required, and then combine the best combination of services, products, and people for that stage.

Recognizing there are no “one size fits all” solutions, we should tailor each project to suit our clients’ individual needs and unique operating environments. Since all our products and services are aligned with the lifecycle stages, we offer the right support, at the right time, focused on the right goals.

Project lifecycle stages

  1. Understanding

Solid projects and campaigns begin with quality research and insight. This can include audience, product, competitor, and stakeholder research. The insights gleaned at this stage are used for the strategic planning, design, and implementation stages. Moreover, any baseline data may be used for pre/post comparisons within the final evaluation.

  1. Planning

The best strategic plans take place after conducting preliminary research, and before designing projects. Innovative strategic plans are best informed by an organization’s products/services, operating environment, capacities, competition, and stakeholders. The strategic vision set during the planning stage will guide successive work during the design and implementation stages.

  1. Designing

The design stage is when strategic plans, research, and stakeholder preferences are artfully combined into a blueprint that describes how a program, campaign, intervention, or study will operate. This is when concepts, promotional materials, and visual designs are conceived, pilot tested, evaluated, revised, and finally refined. This is also where project teams, workflows, and key people are engaged. At the end of this stage, organizations will possess blueprints describing how the project will look and function.

  1. Implementing

The blueprints designed at the prior stage are now implemented at this stage. When this stage starts, the project enters the building phase, where product specifications are converted into tangible products. This stage draws on a range of talent, such as managers and marketers, as well as creative, technical, and substantive experts. Roll-out may occur through a gradual or a rapid implementation. Soon after, daily management and operations set in. During this stage, monitoring and periodic evaluations help staff understand how their various activities are working out, and use this feedback to better optimize their efforts.

  1. Concluding

When a project or campaign ends, there are numerous opportunities to extend its impact and to learn from the experience. Final evaluations are a key part of this stage. Any baseline research, monitoring, or interim studies can make a significant contribution to the final evaluation.

As a project manager, I would recommend to select the best members to be assigned in the project. They should be the best in their craft so that the project will be finished in no time. The LGU Project for its biometric DTR (Daily Time Record) and Payroll solution is a not an easy project to handle so the team should work with enthusiasm for the project because the project relies on their hands.

The project team and the client should have a healthy client-team relationship.

“Has a successful track record of developing, managing, growing, and institutionalizing complex relationships on behalf of the firm.”

Winning the sale: Is able to consistently convert leads into paid projects, programs, or transactions. Can analyze a client’s buying network and develop strategies to help meet each player’s business and personal wins. Mobilizes the right team and set of institutional resources for each sales opportunity. Successfully negotiates the commercial aspects of the contract with the client.

Many-to-many client network: Works with his/her team to plan and build many-to-manyrelationships with the client. Creates multiple sponsors/supporters within the client organization, so that the departure of a single executive will not result in termination of the commercial relationship.

Account planning and development: Together with the team, develops annual client plans. Meets periodically with the core team to review, reflect, and strategize about how to improve the relationship and serve the client. Seeks client feedback on the firm’s performance. Follows up on agreed actions and ensures team members meet their commitments.

Agenda setting: Understands and can articulate the client’s most critical issues and challenges. Is forward looking–doesn’t just react to client requests, but actively works with the senior client to help define his/her agenda. By building trust, has earned a “seat at the table” for the firm when important strategic or operational issues are being discussed.

Value: Forecasts, delivers, and communicates value to the client. Can articulate core value and personal value: Both how the team is delivering against contracted-for results, and also how the team is adding value to the key executives it is working with.

Having a relationship with the clients would also help for the accomplishment of the project. as a project manager, I would recommend the LGU that they should also coordinate with us so that they may know the development of the project and they may able to monitor what the team needs for the project. Being involved in a project is not that easy, it is a difficult task in every aspect because it can test your patience, knowledge, skills and responsibility in the assigned task. Especially that the company is new to this. They need cooperation from their clients for easier communication and right implementation of their LGU Project.

Projects are happening at every level and in every department of the modern organization.  Companies INVEST heavily in the successful completion of these projects, yet even with the support they need, many of these projects are unsuccessful in fulfilling their defined goals. A study done by The Standish Group reports that 51% of all projects come in over budget or run past the original deadlines.

Strategic planners and project managers develop plans that have a strong likelihood of success, gather the right people to implement that plan, and then guide that work toward project completion. But as every project manager knows, having the best plan and the highest performers onboard isn’t nearly enough. Ineffective communication and lack of team collaboration will cause even the best plan to fail. Emails and Spreadsheets are important, but insufficient tools to ensure project success across the organization.

As a Project manager, I would recommend that they should provide the need of  tools that parallel a more effective Enterprise Project Management (EPM) methodology and enable them to manage their projects within a the dynamic cycle of planning, communicating, tracking, and analyzing projects toward a defined goal. And that goal is to accomplish the project given to us

3. If you’re a project manager, will you declare it as a failure? Why?

If I am the project manager, I would declare the project a failure. It is a failure becausethe Head Office didn’t analyzed or planned the proposed project well enough. They should have planned the necessary steps they should make in order to figure everything out. So that they could analyze everything and make necessary steps when encountering consequences within project implementation and project testing. Even though the Head Office has more power in making the final decision they should have been more open-mended to the comments, suggestions or opinions of the local outlet personnel and the other members of the EMCA Corporation suitable in making the analysis on accepting the LGU’s said project. If the critical success factors for the projects output are not well specified, and is not properly oriented to the developing team, then consequent process of design, quality control, or project management is going to be a major consequence in the near future on the project development. Project manager should take and plan well the necessary steps needed for the project. Preparing and defining the project scope of work, financial plan, its goals and deliverables.

All though the EMCA Company has made their move on doing outsourcing of resources to cover for the insufficiency of the company to perform software development for costumers and some of the hardware installations. Still, they failed to on finding some of the other resources, such as the team that would perform and develop the said project. They have succeeded in forming a team that is knowledgeable in making the software, however because the team was outsourced; they don’t have the full time in making the software. This however compromises the accomplishment of the project due on the scheduled date. They should have formed more than one team to perform the creation of the software because the team they had formed doesn’t have their full time on creating the project. EMCA must’ve formed many teams and divide the tasks in the construction of the software, this will make the completion of the project a lot easier and could make the success rate higher. Forming many teams and dividing the software development is the best way they could do to complete the project and cover for their insufficiency and scarcity of resources. In this manner they could utilize their outsourced resources well enough to complete the project on time. A team that can handle the JOB will be the one who will carry out the entire strategic plan to be led by the project manager from the Head office. However, the company failed in finding an efficient, dedicated and reliable project manager; instead the project manager itself abandoned his own team and causing more damage to the project and discouraging the team resulting to failure and abandonment of the other members. Step-by-step process is a key in the project to have its progress and finally it will finally be used by the client. The assigned team must be keen in observing the development of the project from the start until the very end. Somehow the project will yield without error. After this it could remark their company as well the team that they do great JOB in making projects. It will enhance their standing in the eyes of other clients on the field of outsourcing industry. It will uplift also their ranking as well. If they succeed on a particular project it will attract more clients and create new JOBS.

After accepting the project and identified the project definitions needed to be performed, the next thing the company must have done is to make a list of activity sequence. In this way they could easily identify what to do first and next. Activity sequencing is very important, having this aspect in the project plan; the team could easily perform the tasks accordingly. After identifying the tasks that are needed to perform, the tasks should identify what should be done first before the other. It is very essential in project management to plan and to identify the sequence of the job to be done. This is also important especially when you have many personnel that would be doing the project. Job division is very easy in this manner. I think the Project manager failed to lead his or her subordinates to be effective in doing the project. The project manager was so busy doing another project, while having the current project accepted from the LGU. The estimation of the project activity and the estimated completion time was also a failure. The head of the project failed to estimate the right amount of time and the right accomplishment duration of the project. Activity duration estimation is very important. This is where the manager must estimate the enough time that would be allotted to finish a specific activity scope. Failure to do so is another alteration for the planned activity duration and the activity sequence. The planned sequence and the planned estimated duration should be followed well to prevent major project failure. This is very important because making specific time frames for your project would help the team to finish the activity on the right time thus, preventing project failure. The project manager failed to lead the team well, so that they would carefully follow the plans prepared. He failed because he is so busy doing other tasks. An efficient and effective project manager should’ve leaded the team well in following the right sequence of tasks within the specific time frames given. Monitoring the team constantly is also a factor on making the project duration planning a success. The team must have constant communication in order to have effective team work. Constant communication to the clients should also be done by the project manager; this would help the team to update the client about the progress of the project and also to gain confidence and trust on the team from the clients. The EMCA’s team lacks the so called team work and communication. Team work is very relevant in making a particular project to be a success. Team work must be led by the project manager.

Assign precise responsibilities for each team member according to their field of expertise, this helps the team do their JOBS at its best. As a Project manager he is necessary in managing all aspects of the project and the team members for them to work effectively and take action on the plans effectively. Coordinating directly and indirectly with project staff to ensure successful completion of the project – Directing, supervising, supporting and coordinating the project team members/staff. The EMCA Corporation has overestimated their company’s capabilities and resources thus compromising the entire project. They have failed to assess the project properly if they could really accomplish the entire project. They have failed because the Head Office was greedy and offered to accept the entire project even though they lack resources and knowledge about the said project for the LGU. The Head Office should have listened to the Local outlet when they hesitated about accepting the entire project. The Local outlet has succeeded on identifying the project definition, project resources needed and the tasks to be performed and completed. However, the Head Office failed to do the necessary measures needed to be performed before accepting any project, resulting to a major disaster in the project completion. Managing the design of the project documents to monitor project performance and data stored. Possibly the most common downside is failing to initiate a project properly by spending time to gather and agree customer requirements, create a good project plan and set customer expectations and specifications. It is very influential to start work quickly, but a poor initiation phase often leads to problems and even failure that made the team fail to accomplish a project. Never ever start a project until it has been properly initiated. Do not allow the customer to push the team into starting work on the assumption that it will result in an earlier delivery, the project manager should always have the plan to when to start the project after the agreements, the go signal for the project initiation. In reality, poor project initiation extends projects, by causing revisions, errors and oversights. It is no-good doing a systematic planning of activity lists and initiating a project, if the project manager would not supervise the team effectively. Classic problems are scope creep, poor work-planning, lack of change control, poor communication and poor management of risks and issues that can be encountered by the team during project development. Introduce a change control process and make everyone aware of it, in this way the team would be prepared if there will be changes on the scopes, schedules, tasks, etc. on the project in the near future when facing consequences while the team is working on the project. Use it to ensure that the team stay focused on delivering what is important and what are the necessary tasks or actions to be done while implementing the tasks given. The team should always report any issue that would be faced at the middle of project development phase; in this case the team would be helping each other in facing the issues met and thus making the necessary steps to be done in solving the issue a lot easier and faster. This saves time and ensures there is better focus on risks and issues as they arise. Communicate regularly with the customer, sponsor and other important stakeholders. Review and update the project plan on a regular basis. If the team doesn’t intend to evaluate and keep posted their plan, then it’s not worth creating.

The project manager’s responsibility is the most challenging of roles within the project team. To effectively manage the project management process, this requires full-time commitment, focus, effective planning and most importantly the attitude of the person leading the team. The head of the team must be the most influential member of the team. The most versatile Project Managers are therefore those highly skillful. The project must get the first call when a conflict of importance arises. For each project undertaken the Project Manager should identify, agree and document the responsibilities and the expectations of the client. The bearer of each risk should be responsible enough to call the attention of the project manager and to monitor his risk, and to take appropriate action to prevent it from getting a lot worst, or to take whatever necessary action needed if the problem does occur. The team in the first place should also work responsibly. Work with all enthusiasm. Engage with the clients properly. Bear with clients’ needs and wants. The team should be ready for any possible change that the client would request. Consider many adjustments throughout the project making. Having an agreement and clear transaction with the client before proceeding in developing the project, so that there will be no error all throughout. Do not begin working without good direction. After all the output is collected, a report will be generated. Regular reports are valuable. Consider tasks/projects that need to be done and modify the team to get the work done. Without this strong communication, teamwork would not have been possible. Likewise, a result would have been impossible. It was the key to the team’s success.

Especially in the form of communication, many misunderstandings and change will occur. So if the company will handle any kind of projects, they should make sure to verify each single detail on the given project. Make out the best of it. Timely consult the client. Listen to clients need and wants. And dedicate time and effort on how to develop and manage each project.

Changes and misunderstanding must be first considered with the company and the client as well. It is consistent in some other ways. But the company is the main responsible on any case of mistakes. It is mandated also that every company will stand whichever the problem is.

4. What steps would you do to make it succeed?

  For this project to succeed the company must modify their developing team. They should have their developing team as their own employees and not the outsourced one. This would help the company have a proper control over the employees and control of the project. The company must select a new and a more efficient project manager. They must have a contract for both parties, the clients and for the developing team. This contract would hold the definitions, specifications of the project agreed with client and as well as the bind with the employees that they will not leave the project until it is not finished and that the project would be finished on the date agreed upon by both parties. This would also hold the necessary compensations agreed if the team fails to accomplish the project given to them. For the team to success they should follow the necessary steps needed in order to make the project a successful project.

At the beginning of the project, make sure the clients share a common understanding of how they will determine whether this project is successful. Define the necessary specifications needed in order to make the project a success. Too often, meeting a set schedule is the only apparent success factor, but there are certainly others. Achieve the specific customer satisfaction measures, retiring a high-maintenance legacy system, and achieving a particular transaction processing volume and correctness. Identify project drivers, constraints, and degrees of freedom. Every project needs to have balance functionality, employment, budget, schedule, and quality objectives.

Early in the project, decide what standards will determine whether or not the product is ready for release or it is still in the testing state. You might base release standards on the number of high-priority defects, performance measurements, specific functionality being fully operational or other indicators that the project has met its goals and specifications. Whatever standard you choose or set for your project it should be realistic, measurable, and aligned with customers set of quality standards expected of the project output. The team should always establish a constant communication within them and with the clients. Any data you have from previous projects will help you. The hard part isn’t writing the plan. The hard part is actually doing the planning—thinking, negotiating, balancing, talking, asking, and listening. The time you spend analyzing what it will take to solve the problem will reduce the number of surprises you have to cope with later in the projects processes.

Breaking large tasks into multiple small tasks helps estimate the project completion more accurately, reveals work activities you might not have thought of otherwise, and permits more accurate, fine-grained status tracking. Plan to do rework after a quality control activity. Almost all quality control activities necessary for improving the quality of the output of the project, such as testing and technical reviews, find defects or other improvement opportunities for the project. Your project schedule or work breakdown structure should include rework as a separate task after every quality control. Always plan proper time scheduling for process improvement, team members are already overloaded with their current project assignments. Set aside some time from your project schedule, because software project activities should include making process changes that will help your next project be even more successful.If you’re not the top person in the company, use your influence to help employees to achieve their career goals. If you are the top manager, do whatever you can.

Things never go precisely as you plan on a project, so your budget and schedule should include some contingency buffers at the end of major phases to accommodate the unforeseen. Unfortunately, your manager or customer may view these buffers as padding, rather than the sensible acknowledgement of reality that they are point to unpleasant surprises on previous projects as a rationale.Have a record on the progress of the project. See if the progress complements on the scheduled time frames of your plans. If you don’t record the actual effort or time spent on each task and compare them to your estimates, you’ll never improve your estimating approach. Your estimates will forever remain guesses.One benefit of using inch-pebbles for task planning is that you can classify each small task as either done or not done, which is more realistic than trying to estimate what percent of a large task is complete at any time. Always track the progress status accurately and honestly.

Always have constant communication between the client and within the team. Clear communication will help guarantee teamwork and productivity. You need to explain your vision for the team. Employees appreciate knowing what you expect, how they’re doing and what’s in it for them. Set goals about expectations of employee performance, coach your workers, and get feedback. Share your logic in decision-making processes. Explain concepts and principles to your workers, so they can feel involved and valued, and can be pro-active and take ownership of their work.

Proper, immediate, and effective risk management is always needed. If you don’t identify and control risks, they will control you. Spend some time during project planning to brainstorm with the team members for possible risk factors, evaluate their potential threat, and decide how you can lessen or prevent the risks. Estimating based on effort and not calendar time. People generally provide estimates in units of calendar time, but it is good to estimate the amount of effort associated with a task, then translate the effort into a calendar-time estimate. This translation is based on estimates of how many effective hours I can spend on project tasks per day, any interruptions or emergency bug fix requests I might get meetings, and all the other places into which time disappears. In this way, project completion or tasks completion estimation are even more accurate. Estimating the capabilities of every member to finish a particular given tasks is very important in determining the schedules to be followed. Schedules planned and analyzed are based on the capabilities and efficiency of every member to accomplish the given task. Never schedule team members 100% of their time. Tracking the average weekly hours that your team members actually spend working on their project assignments is a real eye-opener. The task-switching overhead associated with the many activities we are all asked to do reduces our effectiveness significantly. Don’t assume that just because someone spends 10 hours per week on a particular activity, he or she can do four of them at once; you’ll be lucky if he or she can handle three. Determine how much time your team members typically spend on training activities annually, and subtract that from the time available for them to be assigned to project tasks. You probably already subtract out average values for vacation time, sick time, and other assignments; treat training time the same way. With this data you can create the time frame needed in the project completion process to be followed. Always record the estimates you have made and assess if it was followed well or not. When you prepare estimates for your work, write down those estimates and document how you arrived at each of them. Understanding the assumptions and approaches used to create an estimate will make them easier to defend and adjust when necessary, and it will help you improve your estimation process. Use estimation tools. Many commercial tools are available to help estimate the entire projects. With their large databases of actual project experience, these tools can give you a spectrum of possible schedule and staff allocation options. They’ll also help you stay out of the “impossible region,” combinations of product size, team size, and schedule where no known project has been successful.  If you’re trying new processes, tools, or technologies for the first time on this project, recognize that you will pay a price in terms of a short-term productivity loss. Don’t expect to get the fabulous benefits of new software engineering approaches on the first try, so build extra time into the schedule to account for the inevitable learning curve.Encourage workers to suggest ideas for business success. If an employee makes a suggestion – even if you’re not in full agreement – look for reasons to be accepting of the idea. The worker will give 100% to make an idea work, and the person’s morale will skyrocket. If it doesn’t work, the employee will endeavor extra hard to fix it in order to save face.

But if in case all of the company’s employees are really busy and are not available to do the project and leave them the option which is to outsource man power resources, they should probably hire full time employees. However finding the most suited and more capable full time employees will take them a lot of time to find. This leaves them with the option of having many outsourced team. In this way, the company could divide the tasks on the different part time teams. This will make the project completion faster and easier. Tasks breakdown is also a lot simpler and would be done a lot faster. It is because the teams will just have to make a specific task and divide the task into simpler and smaller sub tasks rather than making the entire project with only one team. The company however will have to select many project managers from their list of employees suitable enough for the project to lead the different teams, each team will have a project manager from the company itself.


Project Management (Case 3)


1. What do you think must be done to prevent failure of the implementation of this system?

A project would not turn to be a failure if basic project management procedures would have been followed properly. One of its procedures is estimating the project’s cost so that thorough planning will be done by the project team and will turn out to be a success.

A well-researched and planned cost estimation and budget is necessary for the successful completion of any project. Project managers need to thoroughly scope the project in order to secure sufficient funding. Scoping involves estimating labor hours, materials, supplies and other miscellaneous expenses. Cost estimations and budgets are a work in progress and should contain room for change.

What Cost Estimates Include:

A good cost estimate is unbiased. It should not be made by someone who would over- or under-state the numbers. The cost estimate should clearly define the purpose of the project, what it will accomplish, what assumptions are made, how long the estimate is valid, and how much the project will cost. It should show all interested parties everything relevant, without holding back information. The estimate should be flexible, adaptable and provide a range of the costs involved. Cost estimates start out broad, and as various stages are completed, they are more accurately defined.

Project Management Software

An effective and simple way to estimate costs and prepare a project budget is to use project management software. Most software has features that identify the types, quantities, and phasing of different types of labor. It also has capabilities for estimating the costs for individual project pieces and adding them together to reach a project total. The pieces can differ in size and number from a few large phases of a project with known costs to hundreds or thousands of small tasks.


Management needs to assess the accuracy of cost estimates and budgets. Unanticipated expenses can result in the project being abandoned. Cost estimates that are overstated also have negative consequences. If they are too liberal, they can kill an otherwise viable project by making it look unaffordable. Good cost estimating requires access to a historical cost database. For example, in the software industry, there should be a cost database that contains information regarding cost per line of code, software sizing algorithms and costs for functional descriptions and tasks.


Not scoping the project thoroughly enough, misunderstanding technical difficulties, and making changes are the most common reasons projects do not adhere to cost estimates and budgets. Cost estimates can never be too detailed. Every change should be documented thoroughly. Management should consider how changes affect other phases of the project. A simple, yet effective tool is to use a spreadsheet to prepare the cost estimate, and keep all of the important data visible in cells, instead of hidden in formulas.

Project managers often take similar approaches to estimating costs. Top-down estimates can be made by project managers by looking at similar projects already completed. It is important to identify any differences between the current project and the analogous project to fine-tune estimates. Bottom-up estimates would look at individual tasks from the WBS and attempt to assign costs to each. This procedure is more time consuming, and should include input from the team members who perform these tasks.

A special category of bottom-up estimating is parametric modeling. Parametric modeling attempts to determine the monetary rate or efficiency with which tasks will be completed, then uses these variables to estimate the total cost. For example, if a project involved collecting GIS data on 100,000 parcels to populate a geodatabase, a project manager might have an employee collect data on 10, determine how much time and associated cost was spent, and multiply results by 10,000. Here, a key assumption is that the parameters are based on a cost of a representative sample of work. Cost per line of code written, polygon digitized, or sample collected can also be parameters entered into a model. Some pilot projects are designed to define parameters for input into cost (or time) estimates for much larger projects. Pilot projects are generally completed before and smaller in scope than subsequent projects.

Cost estimates are summary figures for a project. Cost budgets allocate portions of the total to individual tasks. These tasks or work items are the output of the WBS process. Cost budgets can be used in ways that cost estimates cannot. They can identify individual tasks that are over estimates, focusing cost control management within the project. Because tasks in the WBS are also tied to a calendar, cost budgets also allow costs to be easily tracked over time. A measure of total cost of a project over time is referred to as the cost baseline.

The idea of managing a project can seem like a daunting task, however, provided with the right tools, any project can achieve success. When undertaking any type of project management, there must be a working set of guidelines andobjectives that must be followed, in order to guarantee success for that particular project. An essential element when entering into any type of project management is cost budgeting. To create an effective cost budgeting plan, a total budget for the entire project must first be established. To achieve this, each area of the project must be analyzed and given a particular cost estimate. Once that is done, the total sum of cost assessments, whether those costs are in individual projects or inwork packages, are combined to establish a certain parameter to provide a working guideline for the budget. These guidelines are set in place so that the allotted costs are divvied up amongst the appropriate project needs. This will ensure that the budget goals are being accurately met. The process of cost budgeting is a simple, yet necessary process of any successful type of project management.

When creating a budget for a job, project management must be able to engage properly in the process of cost estimating. This is a calculated projection of the cost for the materials required by the project. The materials considered in cost estimating can be any resources required for the job such as raw materials. It is critical for a true approximation of the production costs that those in project management take into account all resources which might be used. Neglecting certain materials could result in cost estimating which is too low. Accurate cost estimating by project management needs to be done often when creating a bid for the project. Too high of an estimate, and the bid could be lost to another company. A bid which is falsely low will result in unanticipated costs the client will have to pay, and that could damage the chances of future business with that customer. Knowing the true price of the project is important for anyone in management in order to create a budget for the job and to make bids.

In handling projects, there are some techniques that must be followed for easier implementations and these techniques are a big help to the team for the accomplishment of the given project.

  •  Parametric estimating is a technique that is essential for any project management team and or project management team leader to become comfortable with using, as the use of parametric estimating provides an invaluable service in the course of the project. Parametric estimating refers, primarily, to an estimation technique which utilizes the statistical relationship that exists between a series of historical data and a particular delineated list of other variables. Some examples of these variables include square footage in a contraction project, the number of lines or code that exist in a software application, and other similar variables. This information is them implemented for the purposes of calculating and demonstrating an estimate for the entity of activity parameters. One valuable aspect of parametric estimating is the higher levels of accuracy that can be built into it depending on how sophisticated the original data that was built into the estimate turns out to have been.
  •  Activity duration estimating represents the act of quantifying the amount of time that it is anticipated the activity will take to complete. This phase of the project, that which consists of the estimating of the amount of time needed to complete all individual schedule activities, typically and traditionally takes place before a project is kicked off, during the conception phase, however, it is possible for the actual activity duration estimating period to take place later, perhaps close to or even slightly after the project has officially kicked off, however, even in those cases a draft or preliminary estimation has typically been made. Estimations can be made in any calendar unit that seems appropriate, such as months, weeks, days, etc., the entirety of the activity duration estimate can be further broken down into subparts or milestones at which certain elements, or deliverables, of the activity are to have been completed in final or draft form.
  • Activity resource estimating is a process in which the project team carefully compiles a thorough listing of the resources that will be needed in completing a project. There are six inputs that are to be used in the process of activity resource estimating. Those six inputs are the activity list, the activity attributes, the organizational process assets, the enterprise environmental factors, and project management plan, and the resource availability. There are a number of tools that can also be utilized in most effectively estimating the required activity resources. Those tools include expert judgment, a complete alternatives analysis, the use of published estimating data, project management software, and the use of bottom-up estimating. The resulting outputs from this process include activity resource requirements, activity attributes updates, requested changes, a resource breakdown structure, and the development of are source calendar. The successful utilization of activity resource estimates will help assure that enough resources are acquired without waste and excessive expenditure.

In a world of limited funds, as a project manager you’re constantly deciding how to get the most return for your investment. The more accurate your estimate of project cost is, the better able you will be to manage your project’s budget. Therefore, estimating a project’s costs is important for several reasons:

  • It enables you to weigh anticipated benefits against anticipated costs to see whether the project makes sense.
  • It allows you to see whether the necessary funds are available to support the project.
  • It serves as a guideline to help ensure that you have sufficient funds to complete the project.

Although you may not develop and monitor detailed budgets for all your projects, knowing how to work with project costs can make you a better project manager and increase your chances of project success.

A project budget is a detailed, time-phased estimate of all resource costs for your project. You typically develop a budget in stages — from an initial rough estimate to a detailed estimate to a completed, approved project budget. On occasion, you may even revise your approved budget while your project is in progress.

It is the team’s responsibility if they will finish the project or just let it be a failure in the end. They should have thorough planning for it because the project’s success in their hands. Proper communication between the members and also to the hospital should have been done to prevent this kind of scenario in their project, Electronic Medical Record System. It turns out to be a big mess in the operation of the hospital because of the catastrophic failure it brings.

Everything will turn out to be a success if everyone and everything involved in the project would cooperate and will work for its accomplishment. The hospital should also help in the development of the system made by the assigned project team because their full cooperation and support are highly needed because it is for their hospital and they should also be hands-on for it. They should check for it progress for them to monitor it. Proper planning and all its components are the basic requisites for the project’s success and implementation.

2. As a project manager, how would you handle this type of project scenario?

“A successful project can be defined as one that is completed within a set budget and

schedule and that meets identified goals and objectives. But if project success can be

defined in one sentence, why do so many projects fail?”

There have been some interesting comments regarding bad PMs. One senior project manager asked “Should the project manager be held responsible for the results of a project or should the entire team be accountable, after all credit for success usually goes to the team?” Of course, whether the credit for success goes to the team or not, really depends on the organization culture and the wisdom and ethics of the PM and upper levels of management. But, that is a topic for another article.

First, let’s address the idea that there is a difference between the project team and the PM. The PM is part of the project team. Hierarchies and divisions based on roles are one of the common causes of dysfunction in projects and organizations. So, credit for the success or failure of a project does belong to the project team, unless it is hamstrung by cultural and organizational barriers to success.

When projects fail they fail for any number of reasons ranging from irrational, unclear or changing objectives to poor performance. Poor performance is the responsibility of individual performers, including project managers. But, responsibility doesn’t end there; it is shared. General management is responsible for making sure that the right resources (ones who have the capacity to perform their roles) are assigned to the project. General management and project management process owners are responsible for making sure that there is a continuously improving process, supported by effective tools and policies that enable performers to do their jobs. Remember, the best performers can be brought down by a poor process.

Individual performers (including project managers) are responsible for making the right level of effort and for making sure they have the skills that they need to perform. They cannot rely on their organizations to give them the competencies they need. It is a personal responsibility. Individual performers are also responsible for following the process and for speaking up when they realize the process is broken. They are responsible for acknowledging their errors, omissions, and weakness and doing what is needed to remediate them.

Project success is a shared responsibility among the project team which consists of all the performers, project managers, team leads, etc. from across internal organization units and partnering organizations. It is also the responsibility of sponsors, functional managers, clients, executives and senior managers, who are part of the “outer team” and who set objectives, provide resources and establish and maintain an environment that supports effective performance.

Together these stakeholders perform individual projects, assess their performance, identify the causes of both success and failure and do the ongoing work of changing the conditions that address the causes. When the concept of team is limited to what might be called the core team of performers the probability of success goes way down because those who perceive themselves as outside the team are less likely to be motivated to put out the effort to succeed and those who perceive themselves to be on the team view the others as outsiders who mostly get in the way.

Inclusivity and identification with the team promotes collaborative effort and accountability.

  1. Project Management Failure – Background

A whole discipline known as “Project Management” has evolved in the past fifty odd years.

Thousands of people have spent entire life-times pursuing project management as their career. Several trillions of dollars have been pumped into handling and managing projects “the professional way” in order to avoid Project Management failure. Standards, standards, galore – wherever the eyes can see.

Yet, at the end of the day, there is not much to report by way of success. Surveys after surveys have beamed gloomy pictures about the way projects end up – in the dust bin. Project Management Failure is more often than not the outcome.
The Standish Report does it quite elegantly: it categorizes project outcomes into three –

  • Success: a project that gets the bouquets and champagne sprays – for it is completed on time, within budget, and has met all original specs.
  • Challenged: a project that finally made to the deadline. Yet, there were cost/time overruns, and perhaps not all of original specs were met.
  • Failure: A project was abandoned or cancelled due to Project Management Failure.

Consistently, since Standish began surveying companies for their project outcomes, the percentage of category 3 (Project Management Failure) has been higher. The percentage of category 1 (Success!) has been abysmally low.

  1. Why projects fail: different perspectives

Standish group’s line of rationale, trying to explain the trillion-dollar question of why Project Management Failure occurs so often, makes insightful reading. According to them, projects that “succeed” do so due to the following reasons:

  • The end users were apparently involved right through the development of the project.
  • The project manager had full backing of the executive management. Whatever hurdles came up during the project were promptly looked into by the latter.
  • Specifications were clear-cut. This was also possible due to close-level of interaction between the end-users and the project team.
  • Expectations from the project were realistic. There was nothing overly optimistic about what could be achieved within the project’s constraints.
  • Various interest groups

According to the Standish Reports, projects slipped behind in time, or went overboard on budget, or were unable to deliver the full functionality, due to the following reasons:

  • User inputs were inadequate, or thoroughly lacking. Passive users got the chance to comment only after the project was handed over to them, neatly wrapped.
  • Project specifications were incomplete. There seemed to be an inordinate rush to jump from requirements analysis to design stage.
  • Specifications kept on changing over the period of the project execution. The project manager kept incorporating the changed specifications into the system, in order to appease stakeholders.
  • Executive management showed little or no interest in putting out any fires that flared up during the time the project was underway.
  • The project team was technically less than competent.

Finally, their reasons for why projects end up in the dustbin of history are as follows:

  • Users failed to provide complete requirements.
  • Users were not involved in the development process.
  • The project had inadequate or no resources that were vital for its completion.
  • Executive management just did not seem interested in seeing the project through.
  • Specs kept on changing during the project’s tenure.
  • Planning was a casualty.
  • The project’s scope had become outdated due to change in business environment.
  • The project team was technically incompetent.

Yet another take on the reasons why some projects succeed and a lot others fail attributes three variables whose impact on project performance is the maximum:

  • Good Planning: The more forward, future-oriented and in-detail planning, the higher the chances of success. Each and every activity that is expected down the line gets due attention. Not only is this pre-planning well-documented, but also even after the project has taken off, if things don’t exactly pan out as planned, the project manager does not hesitate to re-plan, avoiding Project Management Failure, and readily incorporates the changed circumstances in their new version, so that future events are controlled.
  • Clear responsibility and accountability: All team members have a clear understanding of their roles and duties. There is clear awareness of what exactly is expected from them.
  • Schedule control: Project managers are constantly on their toes, recording time elapsed, milestones reached, change in people/task allotments, and the like. This helps in fine-tuning the schedule on a real-time basis.

This gives them time to implement a fallback position and /or rearrange things so that the project is back on track.

While these analyses are general pointers, there is no universal diagnosis on why projects fail. Every project has its own unique complexities and its own set of players and circumstances. A project manager has to discern the uniqueness of the project that they have on hand, and keep crosschecking the project’s contours against what they have learnt in their class and on the internet.

III. Project Management failure – End word

Unlike other disciplines, project management as a formal discipline is just fifty years young. Perhaps a few more decades shall be required for sufficient knowledgebase to be built up, before the present failure rate can go down to a more comfortable level.

Project management has achieved almost universal recognition as the most effective way to ensure the success of large, complex, multidisciplinary tasks. The success of project management is based on the simple concept that the sole authority for the planning, the resource allocation, and the direction and control of a single time and budget-limited enterprise is vested in a single individual. This single-point authority and responsibility constitutes the greatest strength of project management, but it also constitutes its greatest weakness. The pressures for the completion of an often almost impossible task must of necessity be focused on how effectively the project manager carries out his or her job. Therefore, project management is not a panacea, and unfortunately it does not always work. Its use does not guarantee the success of a task; rather, it takes a great deal more. It takes great dedication and considerable effort on the part of an experienced and talented project team to ensure that a project will be a success. Determining the real or basic cause or causes of project failure can be a frustrating experience. It can be very difficult to pin down the basic causes because they are seldom simple or clear-cut. The problems will be numerous, extremely complex, very much interrelated, and often deeply hidden. It is all too easy to pick a scapegoat, and the project manager is usually the handiest person. Of course the project manager may not be at fault, but there are definitely any numbers of things that project managers can do wrong. Among the many pitfalls that the unwary or inexperienced project manager can fall into is a failure to completely understand some of the basic aspects of the job.

“If it is not documented, it doesn’t exist. As long as information is retained in someone’s head, it is vulnerable to loss.” – Louis Fried, 1992

As the saying goes, “What is not on paper has not been said”, and no more so than in projects. A scope agreement can be easily disputed if it is not documented. An estimate may become a firm quote if it is not written down. A delivery date may be changed if not recorded. You get the idea. Whatever you agree, make sure you write it down and circulate it to all relevant people.

As the project manager, I would handle the scenario doing the best that and if I still have solutions to revive its failure, I will do it. Being the project manager, I would take the full responsibility for the project because I am the one in charge of it. I am the one, to whom the client had trusted for their system. I should not fail their expectations towards my capability.

The project turns out to be a failure because there is a big lack of communication of all the persons involved in the project. Written contracts are very important in every business because it is a proof that you have such agreements between the persons involved in it and if there are some instances that a problem may arise, we can take legal actions for it.

Handling this kind of scenario is not that easy because your credibility is at stake and the client had given you the complete trust for the success of the project. Being the project manager assigned, acceptance is also needed that you had been irresponsible for the job because the project would not fail if it is well planned and all its resources including its budget is well estimated and written contracts are provided for its legality.

Project Management (Case 2)


1. How could they manage the project?

It is important to plan the project with the team so that their contributions and commitment are included and developed. Hold a ‘Project Start-up Meeting’ and run through the Aims, Objectives and Scope of the project. Get the team to identify all the tasks and create the work breakdown structure. The Project Definition (PD) is the starting point for this exercise. Run through the PD and make sure that it is well understood by all the team. It is possible that the PD may have to be clarified or even redefined as a result of this exercise, although that should be exceptional if the work in producing the PD has been well done. If so, authorization will need to be sought and gained from the Project Sponsor for any changes. Assign at least one team member to review each task in detail and bring their conclusions to the next project meeting. The team members should report on the feasibility, risks, resources and timeframe of the tasks under their control. For a large project, the review may take all day (or several days) with each team leader making a presentation to the Project Manager in turn. The Project Manager must draw all the information together and present the plan to the project team for review. Only when the team has signed up to the plan should it be presented to the Project Sponsor for authorization. For a large project of high value the Senior Management Team will often require regular phase reviews so that they can be sure that they are satisfied with the way the project is running. A planning phase review may well be the first of these. Work undertaken by more than one person requires co-ordination. If many people are involved it requires organization and structure. This is especially true for projects because they often involve innovative forms of work and work patterns that differ from the norm. In particular, normal patterns of communication may not be appropriate and the structure of the work may be unusual.

A section of the Project Start-up Meeting should be dedicated to creating the appropriate structure and organization of the project. The team should review:- Personnel reporting structures for:- Part-time team members Full time team members Project stage leaders Project managers Program manager Project sponsor Communications:- Meetings – frequency and type; formal, informal, one-to-one, etc. Progress reporting – oral, presentation, written. Validation Project work review Performance testing of business process, product or service Quality evaluation Sign-off (Authorization) The process by which the project is delivered is as important (sometimes more so) than the planning of the tasks. It should be carried out in conjunction with the project planning. Project Planning often includes the production of a PERT or Gantt chart. These will be of use to different viewers only if they show varying levels of detail. Senior managers and team members need only the overview. Project leaders and planners require much more detail. Ensure that you tailor detail and complexity of your plans for the intended audience. Although the project work is completed and delivered by the project team, this work needs guidance and control to ensure it stays on track. This is the primary function of the project manager during the implementation phase. The project manager must have sufficient understanding of the issues involved in the work to guide the team but need not be an expert at any particular type of work. Often it is detrimental to the project if the project manager has a particular expertise because there will be a natural tendency to concentrate on that element, to the detriment of the project as a whole. It is better that there is a peer review meeting with an expert from outside the project (a senior technical manager or business process expert) to review elements that require special expertise. The project manager must use the project organization that has been created (reporting and communications structures, work review and performance testing) to report on and control the project. Swift and decisive action must be taken if the project does not stay on course or work to plan and budget. The project manager must be a diplomat who can persuade but also a force to be reckoned with if the situation demands it. The higher authority of a program manager, project sponsor or even the senior management team should be invoked if necessary to ensure that the timely decisions, necessary resources and removal of obstructions. It is the project team that delivers the implementation, not the project manager. But it is the responsibility of the project manager to ensure that the team’s output meets the performance requirements stated in the project definition and delivers the goals of the project. How the implementation is managed has a direct relationship to the quality, time scale and cost of the project. Regular reviews of tasks outcomes from the work being done, training methods and their effectiveness (where applicable), and the comparison between the work completed to date with the project definition and plan are the important items to monitor. Ratios are very useful for monitoring. For example, if your team estimates that half the work has been done (on any stage or task) and you know that 3/5 of the budget has been spent, and then you have a problem that must be addressed immediately and action taken. The project sponsor (or budget owner) should always be kept informed because surprises are more detrimental than budget over-runs. If this pattern is being repeated elsewhere than the cost over-runs could spiral out of control. The same goes for time scales. Maybe you are ahead on time but over budget. Cutting back on labor may balance this out. If the extra expenditure has reduced the project risks then maybe no action is necessary. If you are over time and over budget you have a serious problem that must be addressed, probably at a very senior level. Always report bad news at the earliest possible time and seek authorization for remedial action, even if that means stopping the project. Better to stop the project than drive the organization into budget over-runs or even into receivership. But project management is not just about time and money (important though they are), it is about the performance of the business process, product or service being developed. A compromised performance may ultimately be more damaging than a budget overspends. It’s about balance and who has the authority to make that judgment. Sometimes it can be a team member, often it’s the project manager but, sometimes, it has to be the CEO.

There are many ways on how a team could manage a project and these steps must be considered by the team in order to accomplish a project.

  • Define the Scope The first, and most important, step in any project is defining the scope of the project. What is it you are supposed to accomplish by managing this project? What is the project objective? Equally important is defining what is not included in the scope of your project. If you don’t get enough definition from your boss, clarify the scope yourself and send it back upstairs for confirmation.
  • Determine Available Resources What people, equipment, and money will you have available to you to achieve the project objectives? As a project manager, you usually will not have direct control of these resources, but will have to manage them through matrix management. Find out how easy or difficult that will be to do.
  • Check the Timeline When does the project have to be completed? As you develop your project plan you may have some flexibility in how you use time during the project, but deadlines usually are fixed. If you decide to use overtime hours to meet the schedule, you must weigh that against the limitations of your budget.
  • Assemble Your Project Team Get the people on your team together and start a dialog. They are the technical experts. That’s why their functional supervisor assigned them to the project. Your job is to manage the team.
  • List the Big Steps What are the major pieces of the project? If you don’t know, start by asking your team. It is a good idea to list the steps in chronological order but don’t obsess about it; you can always change the order later.
  • List the Smaller Steps List the smaller steps in each of the larger steps. Again, it usually helps you remember all the steps if you list them in chronological order. How many levels deep you go of more and more detailed steps depends on the size and complexity of your project.
  • Develop a Preliminary Plan Assemble all your steps into a plan. What happens first? What is the next step? Which steps can go on at the same time with different resources? Who is going to do each step? How long will it take? There are many excellent software packages available that can automate a lot of this detail for you. Ask others in similar positions what they use.
  • Create Your Baseline Plan Get feedback on your preliminary plan from your team and from any other stakeholders. Adjust your timelines and work schedules to fit the project into the available time. Make any necessary adjustments to the preliminary plan to produce a baseline plan.
  • Request Project Adjustments There is almost never enough time, money or talent assigned to a project. Your job is to do more with the limited resources than people expect. However, there are often limits placed on a project that are simply unrealistic. You need to make your case and present it to your boss and request these unrealistic limits be changed. Ask for the changes at the beginning of the project. Don’t wait until it’s in trouble to ask for the changes you need.
  • Work Your Plan, But Don’t Die For It Making the plan is important, but the plan can be changed. You have a plan for driving to work every morning. If one intersection is blocked by an accident, you change your plan and go a different way. Do the same with your project plans. Change them as needed, but always keep the scope and resources in mind.
  • Monitor Your Team’s Progress You will make little progress at the beginning of the project, but start then to monitor what everyone is doing anyway. That will make it easier to catch issues before they become problems.
  • Document Everything Keep records. Every time you change from your baseline plan, write down what the change was and why it was necessary. Every time a new requirement is added to the project write down where the requirement came from and how the timeline or budget was adjusted because of it. You can’t remember everything, so write them down so you’ll be able to look them up at the end-of-project review and learn from them.
  • Keep Everyone Informed Keep all the project stakeholders informed of progress all along. Let them know of your success as you complete each milestone, but also inform them of problems as soon as they come up. Also keep you team informed. If changes are being considered, tell the team about them as far ahead as you can. Make sure everyone on the team is aware of what everyone else is doing. There are many ways to kill a chicken and even if it has different kinds of approach the bottom line of the story is that the chicken is dead and cooked so that everyone could eat and benefit from it. So as the project, there are many styles or approach for the team so that they may accomplish a project but what’s important is that they may able to reach their goal and achieved the satisfaction of their clients. They may able to meet their standards and the client is happy with their work. Good leadership and smart project management is the only key for a team to finish and accomplish a project given to them.

Project management in the modern sense began in the early 1950s, driven by businesses that realized the benefits of organizing work around projects, and the critical need to communicate and co-ordinate work across departments and professions. Project management is no small task. It has a definite beginning and end, and is not a continuous process. Project management uses various tools to measure progress and track project tasks.

Projects need ad-hoc resources, as opposed to businesses that have dedicated full-time positions. Project management methodologies consist of four to five process groups, and a control system. Regardless of the methodology or terminology used, project management uses the same basic processes. Process groups typically include:

  1. Initiation

All projects start with an idea for a product, service, or other desirable outcome. The initiation process group determines the nature and scope of the project. If this stage is not performed well, it is unlikely the project will be successful in meeting the businesses needs. The key project controls needed, are an understanding of the business environment and making sure all necessary controls are incorporated into the project. Any deficiencies should be reported and a recommendation made to fix them.

The first project document is the project charter, which includes:

  • Business case
  • Scope and deliverables
  • Objectives
  • Resources needed
  • Milestone plan and timeline
  • Cost estimate
  • Risks and issues
  • Dependencies The charter answers the basic question, “What are we trying to do?”
  1. Planning and Design

The project is planned to an appropriate level of detail. The main purpose is to plan time, cost and resources adequately to estimate the work needed and to manage risk effectively during project execution. This is recorded in the project management plan. As with the initiation process group, a failure to plan adequately lessens the project’s chances of success.

Project planning includes:

  • Developing the scope statement
  • Developing the schedule (Gantt chart)
  • Developing the budget
  • Selecting the team • Creating a work breakdown structure
  • Identifying deliverables
  • Risk planning
  • Communication planning This information forms the project contract, used to gain formal approval to begin work.
  1. Execution

Consists of the processes used to complete the work defined in the project management plan, to accomplish the project’s objectives. The execution process involves co-ordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project. The deliverables are produced as outputs from the processes performed as defined in the project management plan.

  1. Monitoring and Controlling

The monitoring and controlling process group involves managing and tracking the project, so potential problems can be identified quickly and corrective action taken. To do this the project management plan is used. Monitoring and controlling includes:

  • Measuring the ongoing project activities (where are we, against where we should be?)
  • Monitoring the project variables (cost, effort, scope) against the project management plan and the project baseline (where should we be
  • Identifying corrective actions to address risks and issues (how can we get back on track?)
  • Managing changes using our change control process (what is the impact of this change?) The monitoring and controlling process group ends once the project has achieved its goals and objectives as detailed in the project contract. A project may be stopped before completion for various reasons, including changes in the business, lack of resources or higher priorities.
  1. Closing

Is an important part of project management, sometimes overlooked. A project that is not closed will continue to consume resources. Closing a project means finishing all activities across all process groups, splitting up the project team, and signing off the project with the customer. At this point it is important to know how well the project has performed. This is done using the project closure report. It communicates how well the project has performed against its original business case, quality measures, cost, duration and tolerances. Rather than leave valuable project experiences locked in people’s heads, it’s a good idea to complete and publish a lessons learned report. This is used to pass on valuable learning that can be applied to future projects. Project Control Project control is that part of a project that keeps it on-track, on-time and within budget. Project control begins early in the project with planning, and ends late in the project with post-implementation.

2.What methodology is appropriate for this project to avoid this kind of problem?

A project methodology tells you what you have to do, to manage your projects from start to finish. It describes every step in the project life cycle in depth, so you know exactly which tasks to complete, when and how. Whether you’re an expert or a novice, it helps you complete tasks faster than before. As a Project Manager, you need a Project Management Methodology to steer your projects in the right direction and keep them on track. You also need it to help you manage your projects in a structured, repeatable fashion. That way, you can apply the same approach to every project you undertake. In order to achieve goals and planned results within a defined schedule and a budget, a manager uses a project. Regardless of which field or which trade, there are assortments of methodologies to help managers at every stage of a project from the initiation to implementation to the closure. In this tutorial, we will try to discuss the most commonly used project management methodologies. A methodology is a model which project managers employ for the design, planning, implementation and achievement of their project objectives. There are different project management methodologies to benefit different projects. For example, there is a specific methodology which NASA uses to build a space station while the Navy employs a different methodology to build submarines. Hence there are different project management methodologies that cater to the needs of different projects, span across different business domains. There are many kinds of project management methodologies that are commonly used in project management but in this kind of situation the LEAN DEVELOPMENT is the best methodology that should be used based on the scenario given. Lean development focuses on developing change-tolerance software. In this method, satisfying the customer comes as the highest priority. The team is motivated to provide the highest value for the money paid by the customer. LD focuses on reducing waste. Waste is usually easy to identify and presents ‘problems’ which can be individually solved. Once you have solved all the individual ‘waste’ problems the project will be as running as efficiently as it possible can. In contrasts with the usual approach of working out ‘good’ practices which, may or may not deliver a benefit – reducing waste is an easy win every time. This methodology embodies the notion of dynamic stability which can be thought of as similar to how Scrum embraces controlled chaos. Bob Charette, the originator, writes that the measurable goal of LD is to build software with one-third the human effort, one-third the development hours and one-third the investment as compared to what SEI CMM Level 3 organization would achieve. In 1989, Professor James Womack and consultant Daniel Jones published Lean Thinking, a survey of the lean manufacturing techniques that helped create the “Japanese miracle” of the late 1980s and early 1990s. They chronicled the ideas of lean manufacturing, with their focus on eliminating waste, creating a smooth “flow” of work on the factory floor, and expecting workers to contribute high skill levels and an ownership mentality. These concepts helped Toyota, the exemplar of these techniques, vault over the traditional giants of the automotive industry. Lean manufacturing theories were highly influential in the creation of LD. Bob Charette, while not a signatory of the Agile Manifesto, has developed a methodology that has many commonalities with those mentioned so far. Similar, though distinct, ideas have also been put forward by Mary Poppendieck and Tom Poppendieck in their book Lean Software Development . LD emphasizes four key success factors that clearly illustrate its compatibility with other agile methods:

  • Create visible customer value rapidly,
  • Build change-tolerant software
  • Create only necessary functionality and no more,
  • Adopt aggressiveness, stubbornness, and belief in meeting stretch goals.

Like Scrum, LD is more of a project management environment than simply a software development one; it consists of three distinct phases: start-up, steady-state, and transition / renewal. Rather than the daily “Scrum,” it recommends a time-boxed “whirlpool” that, like all agile methods, includes the analysis, design, test, and build activities in each iteration. Lean development is important not just for its conformance to the ideals of agile development but because the underlying philosophies of lean manufacturing have been accepted by business leaders worldwide, and so come with existing acceptance. This makes introduction of agile methods in a lean framework more easily accepted and presents a strategic framework that executives are likely to accept with less resistance.

There are 12 principles of Lean Development:

  1. Satisfying the customer is the highest priority.
  2. Always provide the best value for the money.
  3. Success depends on active customer participation.
  4. Every LD project is a team effort.
  5. Everything is changeable.
  6. Domain, not point, solutions.
  7. Complete, don’t construct.
  8. An 80 percent solution today instead of 100 percent solution tomorrow.
  9. Minimalism is essential.
  10. Needs determine technology.
  11. Product growth is feature growth, not size growth.
  12. Never push LD beyond its limits.

The principles of LD can be summarized as follows:

Eliminate Waste-  Current practices have to be examined to establish exactly what is gained by them. Without proper consideration too many activities do not produce a benefit for the organization. Similarly activities that once produced benefit can outlive their usefulness. Claims of indirect benefit must be carefully examined to see that they are actually realized.

Amplify Learning- Too much time is wasted re-inventing the wheel. There is a strange impulse to ‘create’ solutions rather than discover them. Ironically the need to proceed quickly encourages the inexperienced to rush into production without checking what others have done before.

Research-  is an easy win for all endeavors and avoids large amounts of work that might be undertaken to discover what could have been found out in a few hours or even minutes of research. Research applies inside an organization as well as outside many projects waste time struggling in an area where there is an expert right next door if they did but knows it. Delay Resource Commitment A lot of waste is generated by committing resources early only to find later that circumstances have invalidated the expenditure. Feed the Decision Making Process Waste is usually the result of bad decisions so favor early execution of activities which improve decision making in the future. Actions which inform decision making have hidden benefits that may not be apparent from a dependency or earned value chart.

Empower the Team – A lot of waste is generated by poor team cohesion: One person does something which contradicts or duplicates the actions of another. This often stems from top down management where individuals are encouraged to do as they are directed. Individuals in teams which are part of the management process are much less likely to do work which is not consistent with the work of others Specify with Tests Waste is often the result of an unclear brief which results in the production of something which is not what was desired. The clearest form of brief is a predefined acceptance test which the producer can perform themselves or have performed at will. The act of defining the test also focuses the analyst on exactly what they want.

In other words the best methodology for NoName Company is the Lean Development because it focuses on how the developers will work on how they me able to cope with the changes or the demands of their clients. With the help of this methodology, It would be easier for them to finish and implement the task given to them.

.review. Projects should be assessed for the right level of control needed: too much control is time-consuming, too little control is risky.

Project Management (CASE 1)

  1. What issues should have been considered by the project manager before accepting the project?

After reading the PMBOK or the Project Management Body of Knowledge, the author defined project as a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result. The temporary nature of projects indicates a definite beginning and end. The end is reached when the project’s objectives have been achieved or when the project is terminated because its objectives will not or cannot be met, or when the need for the project no longer exists. Project tasks can be new to a project team, which necessitates more dedicated planning than other routine work. When doing a project, a project management is needed and is defined by the book as an application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements. Project management is accomplished through the appropriate application and integration of the 42 logically grouped project management processes compromising the 5 process groups. These 5 processes are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling and closing. And managing a project typically includes identifying requirements, addressing the various needs, concerns, expectations What issues should have been considered by the project manager before accepting the projectcompeting project constraints including but not limited to scope, quality, schedule, budget, resources and risks. As the president of the company, the project manager should have considered possible issues that may come their way upon doing the project that has been offered by the XYZ Company. As a team, they should have anticipated the risks if they would accept the offer. The name and image of the company would be at stake if they would accept the project. And knowing that they only have knowledge project manager which is the company’s president, he should consider the availability of his time and the different areas in which his team are knowledgeable. As the project manager, he is the one assigned by the performing organization to achieve the project objectives. And an effective project manager should possess characteristics such as knowledge to which the project manager knows project management, performance refers to what the project manager is able to do or accomplish while applying their project management, and lastly personal which refers on how the project manager behaves when performing the project or related activities. Personal effectiveness encompasses attitudes, core personality characteristics and leadership— the ability to guide the project team while achieving the project objectives and balancing the project constraints. The main issue in which he should consider is on how he will be able to manage his time as a project manager to the offered project of the XYZ Company and as a company president of the ABC Company. It is not an easy task to manage both because he is the one on which his team would depend, without him they will not be able to achieve their project objectives because they need the guide of their project manager and as well as the entire company, they also need the guide and approval of their company president before making such decisions. Other issues may result if the project manager fails to perform his task on the project and to his company. There will be instances that another project will come up and be offered to their company and his help would be a great need for it. He should consider that he will be busier if he would accept another project. He should make sure that there will be another in-charge to handle and guide the second project so that they could still finish it even without his supervision. A person that is also knowledgeable enough in project management for him to handle the first project and not just assign it to someone who is not capable of doing it so that the project will not be a failure. Another issue is that, he is the only one who the client had talked to and he is the only one who knew exactly what the client wants. If he will assign the project to another project manager, he should arrange a meeting so that he will be able to introduce the new project manager to the client so that they may be able to discuss the things needed and on how he will manage the project. It is because, the new project manager will have another method or another approach for the project on how they will achieve its objectives it is proper way for them to discuss such matters. An effective and knowledgeable project manager should have anticipated those issues so that they may have a quick remedy if it would happen. The team will be prepared for such changes and be able to work on the project without hassles so that they would finish the project on time. Because a finish project especially if it is on time would add reputation not only to the company but also to the team who worked hard for it. It will be another achievement for the company also. Issues regarding the project offered should be anticipated by the project manager before accepting any offer because we will never know what will happen when the project had been accepted and unexpected issues will come. It would be better if issues should be considered by the project manager so that the team will be prepared to face those when it will happen or come their way. A project manager must have leadership that will help the team to achieve their goals and objectives because the project will also depend on his effective supervision and sufficient knowledge on his craft. The finished product of the project will reflect on how the team worked hard just to finish it and on how they applied solutions to issues and problems that they have encountered along their way. Effective leader and team effort for the assigned task are needed in order to come up with a result that would satisfy the client’s needs and expectations for the offered project and to the skills of the professionals that are working on the said company.

  1. 2. What issues should have been considered by the project manager before accepting the project?

In every project there will always be unexpected issues that will arise and as project manager, he should be able to plan for effective alternatives to help solve problems just in case such matters will happen. Alternative plans are needed so that problems will not affect the project and could be resolved quickly. In business there is always a business plan and the management or the team should evaluate the available courses of action through SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) and rank the alternatives and after ranking, they should select the best business plans. It should then formulate the other policies and plans which are the sub plans to the main plan. The leader should involve and consult the other members of the team while formulating the derivative plans. It is the work of the project manager to take initiative to implement the project plan. After the project plan is put into action, the leader or the project manager has to measure the progress of the plan and compare it with the standards, observe the deviations and if there is any, correct it. The project manager should have asked suggestions from his team members of other plans just in case problems will arise so that his team could have suggested something that could help in their planning so that even if he is not around they can still manage to continue their project. He should also assign a substitute for him as the project manager to supervise what his team is doing so that he can still monitor the progress of their project. Someone who is reliable and knows how to manage a project and not just someone he will pick just because there is no enough time to look for another project manager. Because a leader should guide his team members all throughout the project and not leave them just because he is busy. He should have prepared a time table or a gannt chart so that they will have a schedule of their tasks to have a smooth flow of their activities and everything will not mess up because having a time management would help a lot in finishing their project because everything will fall into place if they will just follow what they have planned. It will just be a big waste of time if they will just depend on their project manager on what they will have to do, it will be easier if they have task schedules so that they can still work even without their leader. Another alternative is that they should maximize their manpower; their company is composed of 60 professionals. It would be better if their team would have a group of 3-6 so that work will be easier and be done in no time. If a project would not have any alternative or back up plans it will all turn out to be a failure if problems or issues would not be solved immediately. it is just like our computers, we all have files or important documents, programs, softwares installed on our computers and if the system would have certain problems and the last thing that we could do is to reformat and if we don’t have any back up files, everything will be erased and all the important files needed on that computer will be lost and will never to be retrieved again. It is also like having some serious illness and we could not afford to medicate ourselves with the medicines prescribed by the doctor, some would even try alternative medicines because it is cheaper and they are hoping that these alternative medicines would help solve their problems on their illness. Some would say it is effective but some would say it is not, we can never tell if we will not try it. All I am saying is that, alternative plans for the project may be or may be not a big help for the problems in the project but nothing will be lost if we the company would just try and have also prepared some alternatives for it ahead of time so that the project will not be messing up every single day just because they have not resolved the issue before it would end up to be a failure. Being a project manager is not an easy task or an easy role in a given project because you will be the one to plan everything for the success of the project and it requires great effort and critical thinking just to meet the client’s needs and satisfy them with the results. In planning, alternative solutions for the project if certain issues would arise is also a hard task for the project manager but consulting some opinions from his team or other colleagues in the company could lessen his work because if they will share their ideas or brainstorm for it they will come up with the best alternative solution for a particular problem. Possible problems should be also anticipated by the team so that it will not be harder for them to think of solutions because they could not think of any if they do not know the problems that are needed for solutions. If the project fails, it is not only the project manager’s fault but the whole team because it is a team work and they should help hand in hand to finish the task given to them. And so as if the project would be a success, it is not only the recognition of the project manager but so as his team. Every project is a team work; a goal will not be a total success if one member will not cooperate. It is everyone’s effort should be recognized by the client because without their full cooperation and hard work, the whole project will fail and the blame will be put on the whole team. Full cooperation is really needed for the success of one project and in the end; it will be a pride of the team because it is a team effort.

  1. Do you think the system analyst and web developer should also be blamed for the failure of the project? Why?

Life is all about teamwork. As the saying goes by, “No man is an island.” A team is composed of a leader and its team members. All of them have specific roles in their team and their roles are needed for the achievement of their goals. In the situation, the team for the offered project by the XYZ Company is composed of the project manager, system analyst and web developer. Each of them has specific roles in the project. The project manager is the leader in which his role is to guide his members on what to do for the accomplishment of the project. Even if the project manager is the leader of the team, it is not only him to blame but also his members. As the saying goes by, “One for all. All for One.” The system analyst and the web developer should be blamed also because they are called a team and they should be involved and work hand in hand for the accomplishment of their project. At the first place, the system analyst should have think first before accepting the work that the project manager supposedly be doing. He needs enough knowledge before acting as a project manager because the work is not an easy thing to do. He also needs to review the entire project based on the client’s specification. We shall say that he accepted the task given by the project manager without hesitation just to finish the said work; he must double his effort because he is the system analyst and the project manager as well. He needs to work harder for it but nothing progressive happened but just messing the whole project. The web developer is to be blamed also because it is under his responsibility when it regards to the site needed for the project. He must do some solutions for it so that they will have fewer problems upon working on it. The failure of the project is to be blamed to all of them because they must work as a team and it is defined as a group of people with a full set of complementary skills required to complete a task, job or a project. All of its team members should operate a high degree of interdependence, shares authority and responsibility for self-management, are accountable for the collective performance, and must work towards a common goal and shared rewards. A team becomes more than just a collection of people when a strong sense of mutual commitment creates synergy, thus generating performance greater than the sum of the performance of its individual members. It simply means that a team should work together because work can be done faster if responsibilities are properly exercised in their team. A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to an agreed purpose, goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. Working together as a team, can help develop direction, momentum and commitment by shaping a meaningful purpose. This purpose will break down into short-term goals and milestones, but these should relate to the overall purpose, otherwise team morale and momentum can diminish. One of the major issues in longer-term team performance is keeping the team on track and maintaining urgency and morale. Focusing on their objectives, as opposed to issues like personal chemistry, togetherness, good communications and good feelings, can help achieve shape of a team more quickly and effectively. The team’s approach is where the team decides who will do what, how the team work together, the constraints, schedules, deadlines, milestones, reporting structures, language, etc, helping to foster a common approach. Each team thus develops its own method of energizing and supporting one another. This takes time and is an evolutionary process. For all the functional and team role issues, real team bonding generally takes place through activity, and this, in the early stages, is often through ‘who does what’ issues. This phase can also help establish the small wins which help keep morale high and show others that the team is achieving. A team is mutually accountable if they show honesty, integrity, commitment to one another, trust and relationship. Most of us enter a team situation cautiously, ingrained with our own individuality and, if we are honest, determined to look our best and unlikely to really trust the others. However, if a team is to function well it must behave like a team, which means leaning on each other and holding each team member accountable for their actions to the team as a whole. To succeed at the task in hand everyone involved needs to combine their efforts. If everyone does their job well, then it increases what the team can accomplish. This teamwork has to be recognized by everyone and know that great things can happen if individuals master the fundamentals and work together as one unit. Everyone has their own unique role, but each person’s individual role must be recognized and appreciated. Teamwork is something that must be a high priority and given constant attention. Every team member needs to understand how important it is for them to work smoothly together if they want to be successful. Each member must be dedicated to the whole team and be willing to act unselfishly. When challenges arise (as they always do), the team needs to have the resources, accountability and commitment to deal with them in a constructive and positive manner. A sense of teamwork will play an integral part in this. Forming a faction, your team mates will make up for your weaknesses and you will do the same for them. Each member has his own strengths and when all of these are used together as one, you form an unbeatable being. You have to be aware of each other’s strengths and weaknesses. A team must have a clear expectation of each other. A team should be about giving, loving and winning. A project would not be a failure if the team will have the so-called teamwork. Just remember T.E.A.M. – Together Everyone Achieves More!

  1. What does the project team lack causing the project to fail? What additional recommendations would you give to this team concerning project management?

The project ends to be a failure because the team assigned for it lacks the so-called teamwork. It is really needed to accomplish the goals set by the team when planning for the project. There are some reasons for lack of teamwork and here are as follows: different beliefs, different experiences, lack of clarity on decision making (Methods for making decisions are changing or unclear.), lack of team communication skills, poor group facilitation, and lack of trust and lack of time. Those reasons really led the team to failure because they do not have teamwork. They lack of clarity on decision making because the project manager should be responsible for this task and relay it all to his team members on what the client’s specifications for the project and his decisions are changing because he became busier when another project came in. Our ability to make decisions depends on our own self-understanding and how we handle ourselves when making decisions. We need to know when we are good at making decisions and when we are in danger of being less effective because of blinkering, avoidance, vulnerability or even fear. Understanding our own strengths and weaknesses is essential to our being able to improve our ability to make good decisions and move on. The principles of a good decision making are clarity (utter objectivity about the issue, the context and the consequences), conviction (the place of intuition, values and trained judgment), and courage (turning belief into action to build next steps), communication (embracing listening, engaging and persuading). To establish a strong business relationship, effective communication practices must be established. Many opportunities for poor communication take place in any work environment. The boss many not have received an important email from a subordinate, or an order might not have been shipped on time due to a missed phone call. No matter how minor or major the lack of communication is, poor communication will strain the productivity of the organization. Awareness of such problems in communication is the first step toward solving them. Poor communication in business whether written or oral, can obstruct the efficiency of your organization or a specific department. For instance, vague email messages that require clarification, documents that need rewriting due to errors, and uninformed presentations and speeches, can greatly affect the flow of work in the company. Effective business communication skills are crucial to successfully completing any project, large and small. When multiple employees or company departments team up to complete a large project, the value of each department’s skills will increase exponentially. Without implementing clear communication practices, however, company projects will be slow and inefficient to complete. If poor communication skills result in the inadequate handling of important projects, this can cripple the company’s innovation and capacity to make positive contributions to society. The capacity to innovate is proportional to the capacity to communicate directions, and to communicate new and exciting ideas and improvements. If you have decided to be a project leader then the most important role for you is to be a good communicator. Poor communication will be the first thing that will help you succeed in failing. We all have bad days and sometimes react to people and situations in ways that are not useful. It is doing this over and over that will make you fail. There are some communication skills that we need to avoid like not following up as you said you will, not returning phone calls and emails, not using basic courtesy, not listening, telling outright lies and constant negativity. Communication is essential for people to be more productive and enthused in general. If you are serious about your business then take the time to learn the correct communication skills to help those in your business or to make your customers feel you care. Don’t let poor communication skills ruin your business. Let strong, effective communication is the building block of your business. Most people associate the word “facilitator” with the training environment. Often, that person at the front of the room leading a training sessions, is referred to as the course facilitator. While it is true that some seminar leaders do “facilitate”, the facilitation role is often important in other areas. For example, the chairperson at a meeting often takes on the responsibility for facilitating the meeting, rather than “running it”. The government employee involved in mediation of disputes between other parties is also a facilitator. Human resources staff members often facilitate discussions in various contexts. And staff that work with groups of stakeholders and members of the public may be well advised to take on a facilitating role rather than a directing one. A facilitator is an individual whose job is to help to manage a process of information exchange. While an expert’s” role is to offer advice, particularly about the content of a discussion, the facilitator’s role is to help with HOW the discussion is proceeding. In short, the facilitator’s responsibility is to address the journey, rather than the destination. In this manner the project manager lacks good facilitation to his team members and that is why the journey of their project didn’t come to their destination which is to finish it. They all lack of time for the project because the project manager accepted another project in which he wasn’t able to finish yet the first project this leads to failure because he was not able to supervise his team and without him the project turns out into a big mess. I would have to recommend having a new team with a new set of members. Have a responsible leader in which he would have focus to one project only so that they could all meet the deadlines. Have a regular meeting so that they could discuss the progress of the said project everything is possible if they could just communicate with each other. The team should have regular reports on the progress of the project. They should have a time table so that they will have a smooth flow of the tasks to be done to be able for them to meet their expected deadline because finishing a client’s offered project could uplift the name of the company and also to the team’s confidence.

  1. What is your assessment on the performance of the company president?

A good leader possesses characteristics which leads the entire group or team to success. He is the one guiding and leading the group to its journey for them to reach their destination which is the finish line or success. Good leaders have vision. Good leaders know where they are heading and they lead these people toward the same vision that they have for their lives, a community, or even a nation. They do not just look at what things are, but at what things could be. Good leaders are not passive people. They are usually extremely passionate in whatever they’re doing. Whether it is sports or business, leaders are extremely focused and some of them are even consumed by their passion. Good leaders are wise and discerning. Being a leader often means that they need to make crucial decisions at various points in their ministry. Having the wisdom to make the right decision is extremely important in ensuring the success of the organization. They have compassion for their followers. While they understand they have a goal to pursue, they constantly look back and care for the people that are following them. They are not selfish people who only think about their own needs and luxuries; they also have a heart for the people under them as well. Good leaders are charismatic; they are attractive people and they draw people to them by their shining personalities. Whether is it the way they speak, or the excellence they demand from people; these leaders have an X-factor that people feel drawn toward. They are very good at orating and speaking. They are extremely well-versed in public speaking and they can influence and inspire people with the things that they say. With this ability, it is not surprise that they can usually garner a good following. They are persistent in reaching their goals. They understand that reaching a destination is filled with setbacks. Despite that, they see that the benefits of reaching the goal are greater than that of the setback that they experienced. This makes them extremely persistent people. Good leaders have integrity. They mean what they say, and they say what they mean. They are people who keep their promises and they don’t play the two-faced political game that a lot of others do. As such, people find them trustworthy and they give their commitment to these leaders as a result. . They are courageous. Winston Churchill says that courage is the virtue on which all others virtue rest upon. Besides just having a pipe dream, good leaders are courageous enough to pursue after it. The fears are real, but a courageous leader pursues them despite the fears. Good leaders are extremely disciplined in their pursuit of their goals. While most people would be easily distracted or discouraged, good leaders discipline their flesh to keep focused and to keep steady despite the circumstances. My personal assessment to the company president as the project manager in the said project from the XYZ Company is that, he is not an effective leader because he just led the team’s project to failure. He is the first to be blamed on what really happened because he didn’t even consider his availability if he could manage to work on to projects simultaneously. He just accepted the second project right away without even thinking of his commitment on the first project. Without his leadership, guidance and supervision his other team members failed to accomplish the given task. It is such a shame on the company’s reputation because they were not able to meet their deadline with their client. The project manager’s role in a nutshell is the overall responsibility for the successful planning, execution, monitoring, control and closure of a project. Preparation is a key part of project management. If the project is not started correctly, it will end up with problems such as rework, scope creep, schedule delays, etc. While some might be tempted to jump in with both feet and start writing code or tearing down walls, the project manager needs to help provide a solid starting point for the project. It is this starting point that will help determine whether the project will eventually be successful or not. This starting point is the jumping off point for the project and the team, and it is worth the time and effort to make sure that there is a good foundation for the project in the long run instead of jumping blindly into something that is not fully understood by the project team. Project managers spend a great deal of time managing what other people are doing, creating processes for the team to follow, and making sure that everyone is working at their full potential. How often, though, do we spend time making sure that our pencils are sharpened and our edges are honed? This tends to get forgotten in the rush of being busy project managers. It can be just as important for a project manager to make sure he or she is performing at their best as it is for a project manager to make sure that their team is performing at their best. A project manager is the person who has the overall responsibility for the successful planning and execution of a project. He or she must have a combination of skills including an ability to ask penetrating questions, detect unstated assumptions and resolve conflicts, as well as more general management skills. In the situation, the project manager or the company president ins not able to do his part as the project manager at the first place because if he did, the project would be a big success but because he lacks leadership that would guide his team members nothing right happened but instead a failure. He had all the control in planning for the project but he tend to disregard it because he thinks that his members could do it all without him which is false because a team needs a leader. And the leader is him.



My preferred FTS Model is Model A which includes a major field trip outside Mindanao which is Luzon. I preferred this Model because it would my chance to go to Manila with all honesty and I know in Manila, technology is more advanced as compared here in Davao. In that place, a lot of big IT companies are there and it would be our chance to visit. I know that this Model would really cost a big amount of money and it would add burden to my family’s tight budget and that’s why I am grateful enough that the preparation for our FTS is one year because it will give time for them to prepare on such a big amount of money just for my trip because according to the last batch who had their FTS they spent around 17,000 pesos just for the trip and they are a group of 69 and how much more in our group that we are just 48, so there is really a need to have time to prepare for the trip.

I know in Luzon, we will be able to have the chance to learn in a different perspective because it is outside the four corners of our classrooms and at the same time we are learning with enjoyment because I know almost all of us will be our first time to go to Manila and it adds excitement to us all. plus it would be a chance for us all also to participate in the annual prestigious gathering of all IT enthusiasts worldwide which is Y4IT Convention since in Model A, we are required to have one national seminar and we all chose to attend Y4IT because of the experiences and learning’s we will have on that event. As I’ve visited their site, I am so excited for the event because of the speakers they invited to share and talk in front of us all, they are not just ordinary speakers but speakers who are masters of their crafts and are really successful professionals.

Since our course is related to technologies, there is really a need for us to be informed on the advance technologies that our country is using since we all know that Manila is advanced city as compared to Davao and other cities in all over the country because almost all of the main offices of the companies especially IT companies are all located in Luzon and with this trip we will be able to have the chance to visit some of it. And surely it will bring new learning’s for all us that might be a tool to motivate us more to be good in school because we never know that someday, on one of the companies that we had visited there would be chance that one of us might be a part of the company someday or be a speaker at the Y4IT Convention and how I wish I could be one.

Aside from the learning’s that we might gain, I also look forward on our side trips. Who would not want to experience to shop at the SM Mall of Asia, the largest mall in Asia and only located at Manila? Who would not want to go to Tagaytay to experience and witness the beauty of our nature? Who would not want to experience the rides in Enchanted Kingdom and enjoy until our heart’s content? Of course, all of us would want to experience all of those and honestly, it brings excitement for me and happiness because I would experience it all with my friends.

It would also be my first time to ride an airplane and see the world above me because riding an airplane is one of my wish list that I wanted to experience before I reached 25 years old and FTS Model A is a blessing in disguise for me because it will be my chance and I will not let go of that once in a lifetime chance of my life.

It would also be fair to say that majority of the class preferred this model and I know we all have the same reasons to be able to learn in a different perspective and had the chance to explore new things with the help of the advanced technologies that we might be able to witness on that trip and of course to experience to ride a plane and enjoy exploring Luzon and would be our chance to be exposed in places outside Mindanao and a chance to attend an event like Y4IT. We may have diverse opinions but I know those will just meet halfway because I know all of us really wanted to LEARN and learning is what made us all united to agree that we wanted Model A to be our FTS Model.

At first, my parents refuse to agree to allow me to go on this trip but I explained to them that I need this for me to learn. I will not go on a trip just for fun and pleasure but I will go because I wanted to learn new things, I wanted to learn something that I might apply in the near future. This will be my chance to explore the world, but first I will start to explore Luzon and later on if given the chance to explore the world. And this trip will be one of my stepping stones to achieve my goals in life for it will add new learning’s and experiences that o one could take away from me. With those reasons, I am able to convince my parents to allow me to go and sign the letter which chooses FTS MODEL A.





University of Southeastern Philippines

Bo. Obrero Campus, Davao City


October 1, 2013


Seminar Overview


Our one-day minor field trip here in our city, Davao City is also one of a kind because through this trip I am able to appreciate Davao more especially our government who had the initiative to have this kind of services and equipments for the safety of all Dabawenyos. it is really true that in Davao City, our lives begins here because of the safetiness it could guarantee to all. Having the chance to visit Davao City Public Safety and Security Command Center is a great privilege because I am able to see how the government are monitoring us 24/7 just to ensure our safety of course woth the help of all the equipments they used to make it possible like the  CCTVs installed all over the city so that they may able to capture videos in monitoring traffic, crimes and terrorisms. all CCTV cameras are in high definition and even at night it is still very clear in the monitor of the command center. I really like the place because without PSSCC there will be no monitoring for our safety.

 DAY 1

Today I went to a company to visit Davao City’s Public Safety & Security Command Center located at Sandawa. This trip is our minor field trip for our subject and we chose this place because we want to compare MMDA and PSSCC. MMDA and PSSCC have similarities when it comes to services because they both monitor traffic and road accidents. They also  have differences like MMDA also monitors the natural calamities and disasters in order for them to prevent it but PSSCC doesn’t monitor natural calamities and other disasters but they give assistance instead when there are problems occurring concerning it. The two government companies also have equipments like CCTV cameras, wide screen computers and other gadgets for monitoring purposes but if I am going to compare it, PSSCC has advanced equipments compared to MMDA because of the quality of cameras we had in Davao City, it has high resolutions that everything what the camera could record is very clear not unlike in MMDA that their cameras are pixelized and sometimes it lags. PSSCC has a bigger building compared to MMDA wherein they have separate rooms for traffic monitoring and Intelligence monitoring like crimes happening in public places, terrorism and for emergency purposes. PSSCC had a partnership with IBM for the cameras they will provide for the city. I am so thankful that our City Government is funding projects like these because it ensures the safety of all Dabawenyos against crime and terrorism and for a better monitoring of our traffic. The farthest location of the CCTV camera in the south is Sirawan and in the north is Lasang, it is very commendable that those places are also installed with those cameras knowing that they are really far from the City Proper and I can say that Davao City is very safe because even at night the cameras are still monitoring entire Davao and they could still capture very clear even if its dark. Truly is Davao City a best place to live because of the safety the city could offer to everybody and I am proud to say that I am from Davao City.

What I learned?

I learned that Davao City is a safe place for everyone because of the services concerning it like the installation of CCTV cameras to monitor crimes and terrorism in the city to ensure the safety of everyone and through this, it is one way of promoting Davao City is indeed a livable city and your life is here.

What I liked?

I really liked the place and how they worked really hard for the assurance of our safety. How the city is doing such effort so that Davao City would be a very good place to live with.

What I didn’t like?

There’s nothing much I didn’t like about PSSCC but there are restricted places where we can’t take pictures and the speaker did not have formal introduction about PSSCC.



What can I recommend for the improvement of the advance seminar program of USEP?


For me, I would recommend PSSCC as one of the choices of the students who will take up the subject next year because it is a great place and for them to be able to appreciate more our city but I would also suggest that they should also include other IT Companies for their choices for the minor field trip and not just PSSCC alone.

My advice to those who will take their advance seminar program in the near future.

My advice to those wo will take up their minor field trip in the near future is that they must inculcate in their minds that they are doing this in order for them to learn. They ask questions to speakers so that they would have clarifications and learn something new from them because speakers could not provide all information we need so asking questions is one way of learning also.  They must also learn to behave well and be disciplined enough because they are bringing the name of USEP. And learn to appreciate that even if it’s a minor field trip it is also learning outside the four corners of our classrooms.







 My FTS learning’s and experiences are one of the most memorable moments of my life that I would never forget and I would cherish for the rest of my life. We had a one-year preparation for this trip so that all requirements will be met before our trip. Last year, we had a meeting together with the officers of the last batch of the FTS class wherein they shared us they’re experiences on their Manila trip. After the sharing, we had our officer’s election so that we will be able to have the new set of officers who will lead and facilitate the preparations of the trip. Fortunately, I was the one elected by my classmates to be their president. At first, I was hesitated to embrace the responsibility to be their president because I know that it would be a big task for me but at the back of my mind, I know in my heart that I can do it. So, I faced the responsibility wholeheartedly because I know my classmates are on my side especially my co-officers. We had a distribution of letters to the parents to have a survey on what model they would like their child to attend to and majority of the class preferred Model A which is a trip outside Mindanao. I know that this trip would really need a big amount of money and so I reminded my classmates to tell their parents that the trip would really cost thousands. All of us were very excited even though we haven’t enrolled the subject yet. The Commission on Higher Education had a memorandum that we need to comply all the requirements in that memo before we will have our approval from the administration. And there goes my job; I started to comply the requirements last summer even though I am having my practicum subject. It was hard especially I was the only one preparing for it because I am the one who is always present at school because my co-officers don’t have a summer class. It was really exhausting because I am hitting two birds with one stone because I am having my OJT and at the same time I am complying the requirements we need for our field trip. I did not complain because I know it was my responsibility to prepare for our requirements. After two months, our requirements are now ready for submission for us to have an approval from the University President to let us have our trip in Luzon. I was nervous that time because I hear stories that the president would not allow any field trips to happen especially if it’s outside Mindanao and I don’t want to disappoint my classmates and most especially myself because I have exerted too much effort just for the compliance of all the requirements they needed before submission. After submitting the requirements I received a text message from our adviser that I need to see him in his office because he already received the decision from the president and the stories were all true that he will not allow any field trips to happen because of some reasons especially money matters and the safety of the students during the trip. After hearing the NOT so good news, I can’t really explain what I felt because it was really disappointing on my part because I failed my classmates and I failed myself also. I don’t want to tell my classmates about what happened because I know they will be disappointed also but I had to do it so I set for a meeting to explain what happened together with Sir Gamboa and Ma’am Tammy to help in explaining why our trip to Manila was declined by the president. As expected, they did not liked what happened and so we agreed to ask for reconsideration from the president to let us travel to Luzon because of the learning’s that we will have in Luzon. Fortunately, Ma’am Susan helped us in persuading Dr.Alibin to allow us for our travel and so I made a letter of reconsideration addressed to the president that we are appealing that he will reconsider our request to allow us to have our field trip. After an hour of discussion between the president and our dean, finally he allowed us to have our trip and I was very happy about outcome of our appeal.

As the president, I started to prepare for the necessary requirements that we need for the trip especially for the transaction of the travel agency to arrange for our itineraries that we wished to visit during our trip, for the transaction for all our airline tickets, interpersonal seminar before we will have our trip, and many more. One thing I learned being the president is that I need to check my e-mail time to time because it is a very important means of communication of transactions especially Maynilad and Sir Gamboa because I’m the type of person that doesn’t care about e-mails because I already have my fb account but I was wrong because e-mails are important also for there are some messages that should be dealt only through e-mail and not through phone or even facebook. Sometimes I even stay up late because I was checking the Cebu Pacific website because I was waiting for promo fares for us to avail so that we could have a lesser airline cost because knowing that we need to ride an airplane, it would cost a lot so I need to find a way to have a ticket that would cost less and it was also my first time to transact in a travel agency to get an airline ticket because it would also be my first time to ride an airplane. It was a good experience for me because the next time that I will plan to travel, I know how it goes to transact for an airline ticket. All the preparations before the trip are really exhausting and needs a lot effort because knowing that I am handling a group of 48 students and it is obviously a big responsibility for me. Some of my classmates are stubborn and they are really testing my patience but I know I really need to have my patience a little bit longer because one value that a leader must have is patience towards his/her group and as their president, I have to make my patience even longer just for the success of our trip.

A week before our major field trip in Luzon, we had our Interpersonal Skills Seminar facilitated by the UGTO because we need to build a strong foundation within our classmates knowing that we came from different classes and we don’t see and be with the group all the time. It did help us to get to know our classmates more deeply based from the experiences that they have. One thing, I’ve learned in that seminar is that, we are all unique and we are molded by the people around us especially with our family and we should not judge a person right away without knowing where they come from. We must learn how to know the person more before giving judgments on what kind of person they really are. And also, we must also learn to reflect sometimes on what kind of person we are now because sometimes time will come that we may not know ourselves especially when we think what we are doing are all good not knowing we may hurt others. In our seminar also, it build a strong relationship towards my classmates because we shared what’s inside our hearts that we had not shared when we are having our usual conversations. I also enjoyed during the seminar because we have games after and my classmates participated well during the games and also with all the activities we had done during the duration of the seminar.

A day before our trip, we had our Sunday Mass together with our parents for us to have our blessing before going to Manila and for it will also serve as an orientation to all the parents about our final itineraries and expenses we had for the trip. I presented to them about our final itineraries and the financial report so that the parents will be informed on what we will do in Luzon. I was really nervous that time because I will be facing my classmates’ parents and for sure they will be asking questions to me and I’m glad to say that the meeting went well. I reminded all my classmates that our call time is 4am sharp and we will all meet at the airport and they should be wearing their appropriate attires for our first company visit.

It was September 16, 2013, 4 am in the morning and I arrived at the airport earlier because I need to check if my classmates where already present and already inside the waiting area. It was my first time to have my talk to the attendant at the counter for my check-in for my baggage and for my seat number because I really want to sit beside the window because I always wanted to see the world from above. Our arrival to Manila was delayed due to the bad weather who welcomed us on that day. We had our breakfast at Mcdonald’s and after eating we headed straight for our first company visit.

Learning is our main goal that’s why we enrolled in the subject FTS and spent thousands just to go to Manila for we all know that we will be able to learn new things which will be essential for our future. We are all very excited for our first company visit which is Fluor Daniel but it was very disappointing though because we missed the chance. We arrived late in Manila due to the bad condition of the weather and we are caught by heavy traffic along the way because traffic in Manila is twice the traffic compared here in Davao. For us to kill the time, our tour guide, Kuya Byron, entertained us inside the bus and decided that we have our stopover in Quezon City Memorial Circle because some of us needed to attend some personal necessities. We also had our stopover at the famous PBB House and of course, we had our picture taking there. We had our lunch at Jade Valley Restaurant and after that we proceeded for our company visit which is the SSS Main Office. I find the company very clean and the people employed are all very accommodating as we stepped inside their office. We had our registration before proceeding to the lecture proper and they even gave us flyers about SSS so that we will have a bit of information about the company. They also gave freebies; they gave SSS fans to those who answered their questions. After the lecture, we were supposed to have a tour on the other building but it was cancelled because of the rain, so we went to their gallery room instead. We were able to see displays about the history of the Philippines also we had our picture taking their as a remembrance that we were there. The SSS visit went well because all of us listened to the speakers when they were having their talks and some answered their questions and some asked questions to the speakers and it was an interactive lecture for us. It is really amazing to experience visiting a company especially on its main office because all processes involving their company is there and we are able to meet the employees in SSS main office.  I do believe that learning is not limited to the four corners of our classrooms because sometimes we need to go out and explore the world for us to appreciate even more what the world could offer. In our SSS visit, it made me realize how important it is to be a member of SSS because of the benefits it offers to its members.They also introduced us the system they used for all the transactions happening in SSS all over the country. It is big system because it is not limited to the main branch but also to its regional offices in the Philippines. The system is well planned so that it could bring convenience to its users. I appreciate that the government is open to the new trend of technology for the development of their services to their members and to the employees working on their offices as well. After our company visit in the afternoon, we had our side trip in MOA and had our dinner at Balanghay Seafood Restaurant and we ate seafood there. Then we went to our hotel for our check in and for us to rest and be prepared for the next day.

We had our second day at the SM Mall of Asia for us to attend the prestigious annual convention of IT enthusiasts.It will be our first time to attend this prestigious event for IT enthusiasts and it is the reason why all of us were very excited to attend the convention. We chose to attend the first day of the convention since it is a three-day event. Upon arriving on the place, I really expected that many students from all over the country even professionals will attend the event and on what I saw, all my expectations were really true. Before we could enter on the convention hall, I am the one who facilitated the registration since I am the class president. I went to the registration booth and presented the bank receipt and our registration summary for confirmation on our online registration. They provided us our IDs together with the meal stubs and for the certificate. I distributed our IDs so that we can enter the venue and I’m glad to say that we are organized upon entering the venue. When we entered the venue, we grab our Y4it bags because we paid for it. The place is dark and I don’t know why but it is still good and the convention center is really cold especially it’s early in the morning when we are there. The place is really dark and I don’t know the reason why the place is set up like that. The convention is officially opened by Mr. John Peter Abraham Ruero, Vice President for Externals of PSITE and all of us were very excited because of the inspirations it will bring to all of us. They also gave freebies for the raffle like cameras, cellphones and for the grand prize is a laptop and how I wish I could be one of the lucky winners.The first speaker is Mr. Paul Rivera the Founder and CEO of Kalibrr, the first Filipino start-up in Silicon Valley. Its objectives are getting easy jobs in the Philippines, to identify and build skills to get best jobs. The second speaker in which amazes and inspired me is Ms. Rhea Althea Guntalilib, a Software Communications Analyst in Smart Communciations Inc., she inspires me because despite her disability she is still able to become successful and graduated with flying colors in Informatics International College in Diliman. From her talk, I am able to realize that there is no hindrance if we want to be successful someday. The third speaker is Mr. Kevin Leverse, Ceo and Founder of Startup Dragon, fourth speaker is Mr. Winthrop Yu, President of the Internet Society- Philippine Chapter, and the last speaker in the morning is Ms. Sheryl Hermoso, Training Officer in Asia Pacific Network Information Center, her story is inspiring also because she is a working student but she managed to work in a big company while studying. In the afternoon, the speakers were Mr. Aurelio Vilbar, Principal in UP Cebu Highschool and Mr. Kim Bondoc, Faculty member in UP Cebu Highschool. Mr. Paul Pajo from Ideaspace is also a guest speaker in the afternoon and introduced us what Ideaspace is all about and the last speaker is Mr. Chino Philip Adrian Atilano, Co-Founder and CEO of Time- Free Innovations, Inc. I find the Y4It Conventions very amazing and informative especially to us IT students because we need those testimonials, information from successful speakers as a motivation for us that someday we will be successful and we never know that one of us might be a guest speaker for the event. I hope I would become one. From the speakers from of the convention, Mr. Paul Rivera and Ms. Rhea Guntalilib are my favorites because they moved me and they inspired me that if I wanted to be successful, I will be. From Mr. Rivera’s talk he gave us five lessons that we could use for the future on how we could be successful. Lesson 1: “There is no replacement for hard work.”  Indeed that our hard work is our capital in achieving our success because success is earned and it would be more fulfilling if we gained it through hard work. Our sacrifices and hard works that we exerted is nothing if we will compare to the success that we will be able to achieve someday. For me, success is more fulfilling if it is gained though our own blood and sweat. Lesson 2: “The friends you make today become the people who will help you tomorrow.” The saying is really true that “No man is an island” because whether we like it or not, we really need someone who is there to help us for it would be easier for us to be successful if there are people who will help us along the way. We never know that, the friend we helped today might be that someone who will help you in the success of your career.Lesson 3: “Failure is a part of life. Get over it and keep moving forward.” Failures are our motivation for us to be successful for we will not be able to achieve it if we fail and it would our inspirations to be better next time. Lesson 4: “Entrepreneurs are risk takers and see the invisible.”  And lesson 5:  “Be inspired by something. Entrepreneurship means making your own life.” Ideas are mere inspirations by those people who are now successful today. Just like Kalibrr, it all started from an idea to help people who are not able to finish studies because of some problems most especially financial problems, it is way to find better jobs and an assessment and a tool to build skills for them.But look where is Kalibrr now, it is the first Filipino startup to be accepted in Silicon Valley. It is really a good startup that could surely help thousands of Filipinos who are looking for job opportunities. I hope that someday, I could be one of them in my own way.Ms. Rhea Althea Guntalilib because she lost her sense of sight and completely become blind at the age of 18. During those days, for me is the start of our youth. It is the time where we should enjoy college and go out with friends and face the hardships we will encounter. If we considered college life really hard for her it is times two because she is blind. And I am really proud of her achievements because despite that she is blind she is more successful than those people who are complete and doesn’t have any disabilities. I salute her for that. It is really a good example of inspiration especially to those with disabilities that it not yet the end of the world. They can still compete and belong to the society. It is an eye opener for me that I should value what I have and used it in a good way because it would help me to become successful someday. I am really honoured to be able to hear her talk during the Y4iT convention and was able to have a picture with her. After the convention, we went to Tutuban and all of us were very excited because we know we will be able to buy stuffs in a very low price and we can buy pasalubongs there. I just don’t like the traffic on our way to Tutuban Mall because it takes an hour before we could reach the place and we were just given an hour and a half to walk around and buy things. We all enjoyed exploring the place and we wanted to go back if we have time but sad to say there were none. After the trip, we went back to our hotel to rest and be ready for tomorrow is another day. I’ve also observed that all my classmates were very tired because as I was checking for their attendance, some were already asleep and did not have the chance to change their clothes because they are all tired. Some got sick like fever, cough, colds and even headaches but we are ready for that instance because we have a medicine kit packed with medicines to cater their medical needs just in case.

On the third day, we visit PLDT InnoLab and IBM Innovation Center. I am so excited for the visit because it would be our chance to have a tour in two of the biggest IT Companies in the Philippines. We are thirty minutes early in PLDT and waited inside the bus for the registration. Cameras and cell phones were not allowed inside the company for some security matters to protect them from their rivals. We are greatful that w ehad the chance to have our class picture inside the company courtesy PLDT Innolab. Ma’am Annie together with Sir Gino is the one who welcomed us in PLDT and the two of them were all very accommodating especially Ma’am Annie who is the one who shared to all of us the birth of PLDT, from where it all started up to the day that they become one of the largest Telecommunications Company in the Philippines. INNOLAB stands for Innovation Laboratory and Telecommunications, Education Cemter of PLDT it is quite long but all of it says it all. After the orientation,Sir Gino is the one who toured us in their upstairs where we saw the projects, products of PLDT. He introduced us the Smart Home where as the owner of the house, we will be able to access our own appliances. For an instance, we forgot to turn the television off, through their Smart Home we can make it possible that even if we’re not at home, we can still manipulate our appliances. But this project of PLDT is not yet introduced into the market because it needs some improvements to provide a quality product to users. They also introduced to us their Smart Tracker, a tracking device with GPS where you will be able to locate people with the use of their product but according to them their target market is delivery companies so that they can help monitor their delivery vehicles if they delivered the goods at the right places and they can locate where the truck is heading in real time. We were also given the chance to enter their board room and most of us were so amazed because of what we can see inside. It is like what we see in movies in where board members were able to see their employees from above through a glass wall. I really like that feeling and how I imagined that I am one of the board members of PLDT. After our tour, we went back to the room where we have our orientation because someone is waiting for us. Our speaker for PLDT Innolab was Engr. Edmund Mamboyo, Lead Training Officer at PLDT, gave us a short but informative talk about the Basics of Communication and how PLDT touched the lives of thousands Filipinos worldwide that despite some trials they have undergone, they still managed to improve their service to provide quality services to their users. I am also honored that I am given the chance to meet and listened to a very nice speaker and I really liked him, he even gave us his contact details in case we might need him. In the afternoon, we had our 2nd company visit at IBM and I can say that it is a very great experience that I had the chance to visit the place and considered as one of the biggest IT companies in the world. Mr. Alexis V. Pantola, Technical Manager in IBM Innovation Center. He is indeed a good speaker because of his speaking skills, he speaks English fluently and truly a well-practiced speaker. He gave us a talk about Smarter Analytics and the topic for me is very new because it would be my first time to hear about it. As the discussion goes by, Smarter Analytics is a system in which organizations can turn data coming from mobile phones, internet and other technologies that provides data into insight and from this insight into a better business outcome. This system analyzes data from machine-operated sensors, video, email and social media that enables organizations to gain entirely new insights to be used in business. It also reveals patterns within data that enable individuals and organizations to make the right decisions at the right time. Honestly, I could not relate on his topic but it would be a helpful tool if someday I would engage in business. After the discussion, we had the chance to have a picture with the IBM logo in the office. In our company visit on the second day, I learned that communication is vital for us all and without communication; this world would be in great chaos. I am thankful to PLDT because of the services they offered for us Filipinos and to other communication companies who made communication possible for us all. After the visit, we went shopping at Trinoma Mall, I could compare Trinoma to Gmall here in Davao because the price of their products are not that expensive as compared to MOA. I am able to buy some stuff there with a low price because of the Mall Sale on that day, I also wanted to buy JCo Donuts but the line is long so I decided not to buy and went back to our bus instead. On that day also, we had our videoke on the bus while we are on the way and all of us wanted to sing but only few can be catered because of the span of time and of course, I sat in front of the bus so I sang a couple of songs. We enjoyed on our mini concert inside the bus and wanted to sing but we already arrived at the hotel so it will be continued on the next day.

On our fourth day, we had our visit on Toshiba located in Laguna but I was not able to see the view along the way because I was sleeping while on travel for I was still sleepy that time. When we arrived on the place, I did not expect that we may able to see familiar faces because some of the employees who welcomed us are our schoolmates from USEP. As I can see, they are all very excited to see us all in our visit. I observed that all the employees are very courteous because every time we passed by they greeted us with “Good Morning” and of course with a smile. It was my first time also to experience a toilet bowl that is warm because I a sit on the bowl, the surface is warm and so as the water, it is also warm and honestly I was a bit ignorant about it. Mr. Emir Ramos, General Manager of the plant is the one who gave us an orientation about the company. The company is really strict when it comes to their rules and regulations while we were inside their premises. They even gave us caps, shirts and shoes to wear while we are on tour so for us we felt that we belong because we had the chance to wear Toshiba’s uniform. We were grouped by two so that we could have our tour in different ways in order to accommodate us all. All process for their products are machine operated but under the supervision of the employees to assure the quality of their products. After our plant tour, we returned to the orientation room and some employees from USEP and other schools had their sharing about their experiences in the company and to sum it up Toshiba changed their lives and in that company they had their 2nd family. I enjoyed during our plant tour in Toshiba and I wish I could visit in the place again or be in the family if given the chance.  I learned that in manufacturing products, the manufacturing company should provide quality products to its consumers to gain trust from consumers and one way of assuring the durability of their products is to have the best people to supervise the processes of the products and to have high end materials such as machines for the processing and also to the parts they will use for the products. Toshiba had made it to their vision and that is to be a world leader in high technology, diversified manufacturer and marketer of advanced electronics because of the products they have and introduced to the market and as well the people behind their products.

After Toshiba, is our most awaited moment of our trip, to have our sight-seeing in Tagaytay and visit People’s Park in the Sky. In that place, nature is what they wanted us to experience because from there, we can see the view of the Taal Volcano and other wonders of nature. How I wish I could visit that place again. We didn’t stayed long in Tagaytay because our next destination is Enchanted Kingdom and our excitement arises as we came nearer to the place. We arrived late based on our itinerary and we are only given 2 hours to enjoy EK. We ran to try all the extreme rides and first in line is Space Shuttle and on that experience I shouted very loud because of the impact it will bring while in motion, it seems my world is spinning and my head is twisting at the same time. Next is Anchors Away, we all thought that the ride is just smooth and fine but we under estimated it because when the ship is going higher I felt that all I’ve ate during lunch would want to burst out. The very scary and breath taking Drop Zero was our third ride and the ride is really unexplainable and awesome. We also tried Disc Oh Magic, Flying Fiesta, Rio Grande Rapids and my last ride, Jungle Log Jam. After trying all the rides that I wanted, I rested and had some picture takings as my souvenirs that I have been to Enchanted Kingdom. Time check it’s already 7pm and its closing time but in that 2 hours of extreme experiences are one of the best 2hours of my life.

On our fifth day, we visited MMDA and I was able to see how they monitor the heavy traffic in Metro Manila and also the road incidents that they need to respond just in case there is. They introduced us the equipment they use for monitoring traffic and the calamities that Metro Manila would encounter. It is not just for monitoring the traffic but MMDA is also concerned for the natural calamities that could possibly nature would bring us especially in Metro Manila because as we all know, Metro Manila is very prone to these calamities especially heavy rains and floods. After the discussion in the command center, we had our discussion about earthquakes and what are the dos and don’ts when there is earthquake. Some of us had experienced there earthquake drill inside the Shake, Rattle and Learn House, it is a house designed for earthquakes drills and on how to demonstrate what should we do when there is earthquake. On my opinion, the government made a right move to fund projects like the services of MMDA because it is one way of assuring the safety of Filipinos specifically in Metro Manila. Advancement of technologies is indeed a big need for the country because of the help it may offer for our country like in monitoring traffic, crimes, road accidents, natural calamities. We still need advanced equipments to assure the quality of services and safety of mankind. In MMDA, discipline is very much exercised as to their tagline- “Marangal, Matapat, Disiplinado Ako!”

On our minor field trip, we visited our very own Davao City’s Public Safety & Security Command Center. It was actually my first time to see and visit the place, I was amazed that our government had an initiative to have this kind of facility for our city because the number priority of our government is to promote our city that life begins here. It assures for all our safety 24/7 that even at night, all the cameras are clear and accurate as to the monitoring of traffic, crimes and even terrorism. With this place, I am proud to say that Davao City is truly a livable place for all Dabawenyos and criminals should be afraid to do things that are against the law because they are monitored in every side of the city.

 Our major and minor field trip taught me the value of responsibility, patience and perseverance because those were the values that a leader must possess especially handling a big group like ours especially that we are having our field trip in Luzon and as well here in Davao also. I may not be a perfect leader to them but I know in my heart that I did my best to make our trip successful and be smooth as it can be. The trip is not just a pleasure trip because it brought us many learning’s that we can apply in our careers someday and also inspirations for us to persevere more in our studies. To cut the story short, our field trip is really informative especially in our course because we visited IT related companies that all speakers shared their knowledge and experiences that we may apply someday and I can say that all our efforts are worth it. And to the students who will have their FTS next year always remember to listen to the speakers and comprehend everything they have discussed because you will not spent a large amount of money just to have fun because you are all there to LEARN, LEARN, LEARN, LEARN and have FUN! 🙂